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Near-Infrared Therapy for Diabetic Neuropathy
The pain experienced by people with diabetes is a symptom of diabetic neuropathy. The impact on quality of life is significant. Pain makes walking difficult, sleep troublesome, and eventually contributes to a decrease in social interaction.
Paperwork Done Wrong, Done Right
I was visiting a doctor's office recently and a member of his staff brought a stack of forms to his private office and laid them on the doctor's desk. She informed him he needed to complete the forms for patients and a few third parties.
Chiropractic in Texas Is Under Attack
The profession of chiropractic faces an unprecedented challenge in Texas, an attack that is more aggressive, sustained and dangerous than anything previously seen. The medical lobby has launched a coordinated, multi-front assault.
Spiritual Initiation: Opening Your Higher Healing Abilities
People drawn to the field of acupuncture and Oriental Medicine tend to be those who march to the beat of a different drummer.
The Acupuncture Channel System (Part 2)
The primary channels (main channels) are introduced in chapter 10 of the Ling Shu, these channels are referenced in many chapters throughout the Su Wen and the Ling Shu. The primary channels have become the main channel system used in TCM.
ICA Goes on the Vaccine Offensive
Have you watched the vaccination documentary, "Vaxxed: From Cover-Up to Catastrophe," by Andrew Wakefield MD, director, and Del Bigtree, producer? This is the documentary Robert DeNiro was pressured to remove from his Tribeca Film Festival.
The Large Intestine Official
The large intestine (AKA colon) is the great eliminator, or as J.R. Worsley called it, "The Drainer of the Dregs." Dregs are defined as the remnants of liquid with its sediment left in a container, or the basest, least valuable portion of anything.
Advancing the "Whole Organ" Spine Model
Historically, the human spine has been organized by body region utilizing specific anatomical landmarks and transition zones.
News in Brief
The American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM) board members recently met with the Korean Customs Service, which is similar to the FDA, to discuss herbal safety and importation issues.
Waist Circumference: A Conversation Starter
New estimates suggest more than two-thirds of Americans are either overweight or obese. The medical significance of this statistic is astounding.
Helping Patients With Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD), a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects motor function, has a slow onset over time.
Gather & Grow
I recently attended a faculty seminar held by one of the acupuncture schools. There was a facilitator who led us through some very interesting experiences. The attendees were a diverse group with varying opinions.
4 Things Every DC Should Know About Levels of Care & Prevention
As health practitioners, we help people with their health problems and assist them with health promotion and disease prevention.
Correcting Rib Dysfunction: Improve Patients' Pain, Posture and Breathing
As chiropractors, we tend to focus on the spine, and rightly so. Many problems our patients face can be corrected by manipulating the correct spinal level.
TCM & the Caregiving Population: Treatment Considerations & Our Vital Role
Informal caregiving is increasingly a reality for many Americans who find themselves providing unpaid care for a loved one or a family member with a long-term, terminal, or chronic illness.
Latest Cassidy Study on Stroke Risk Published
The latest study to investigate whether a unique association between chiropractic manipulation and risk of cervical artery dissection / stroke exists has yielded similar encouraging findings, with the authors noting "no excess risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care" and no significant risk difference between patients receiving care from a DC or a primary care medical provider.
A Brief History of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Doctoral Programs
A doctorate in acupuncture and Oriental medicine has been a goal of the profession since its beginnings in the late 1970s. At that time, however, the maturity of the educational institutions and the regulatory environment made it a goal with only a distant completion date.
Getting Unstuck: Healing From Trauma With TCM, Qigong & Movement
We all come into this world vulnerable, with seeds to grow into our strength. Some of us — through a combination of good fortune (i.e., family and culture we are born into, constitutional inheritance, or ability to learn) grow with minimal interruption from traumatic injuries and experiences.
Treating the Lower Pelvis (Pt. 2): Midline Structures and Fascia
My previous article [October 2016 issue] outlined evaluation and treatment of pelvic issues involving the sacrotuberous ligament and the pubic symphysis. Now let's discuss two case studies that illustrate how to address additional problematic areas of the pelvis.
AOM Residency at NUNM
Imagine you're a recent acupuncture graduate, worried about making enough income as you forge your new career and seek more in-depth training in a particular treatment style.
House Calls With Dad
My father was a chiropractor and he did house calls. On Wednesday nights, while my mother attended the weekly women's meeting at the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs hall in our small town, dad loaded up the portable adjusting table, fired up the Pontiac and drove off to treat a few patients in their homes. I went with him.
Reader Beware: Consider the Source
The aftermath of last year's presidential elections brought a running conversation on the role played by "fake news" that was largely presented via social media.
March, 2016, Vol. 16, Issue 03
Becoming an Informed Consumer of Research: Basic Considerations
By Martha Brown Menard, PhD, LMT
Research is a fundamental aspect of every health care discipline. It supports the theoretical foundation of any discipline and helps to distinguish useful treatments and practices from those that offer no benefit or prove harmful. In addition, integrative health care therapies such as massage therapy, chiropractic and acupuncture have developed a sizable body of research to support their use. Research on the effectiveness of these therapies has helped facilitate their acceptance by conventional health care and the general public, and is a cornerstone of the shift towards evidence-informed practice across health care more generally.
Key to this acceptance is the effort to reduce language barriers between conventional health care and more person-centered, integrative approaches to health. As integrative practitioners are usually still in the minority within the larger health care system, it is particularly important that we be able to explain our work in terms that others can grasp. Understanding research greatly improves our ability to communicate effectively with other health professionals through a shared frame of reference and a common language. In addition to this general trend, there is also an increased tendency for massage therapists, acupuncturists, chiropractors, yoga therapists, and other practitioners to work in conventional health care settings as part of a team, or to become involved in multidisciplinary practices. With the growing trend towards interdisciplinary health care, the ability to communicate across disciplines will continue to assume greater importance.
Being able to locate and critically evaluate research in one's field is essential to providing the best possible care for clients. Evidence-informed practice is here to stay as the new standard across health care, and complementary and integrative therapies are being held to it. Because news about recent research is often reported in the popular media, clients or other health care providers may approach practitioners with questions about what implications a new study might have. It is incumbent upon practitioners to be able to discuss questions that arise from research in their field. Understanding how to evaluate research findings helps one to do this knowledgeably, with ease and confidence.
Research evidence has also assumed a major role in influencing health care policy on a national and international level. Policy decisions regarding what treatments are considered "best practices" and which will be reimbursed are increasingly based on research. Cost and consumer satisfaction have also become important study outcomes of interest. I believe that reading health care research offers every complementary practitioner a valuable tool for improving the quality of care you are able to offer your clients, and for ensuring that you and your loved ones receive the best possible health care. Understanding research is vital to the continued development of complementary therapies. And there is another yet important reason to become an informed consumer of research.
Science as a Social Activity
In evaluating the merit of any particular study, it's important to remember that science takes place via human interaction, through informal communication among colleagues with similar interests, more formal presentations and discussions at conferences, and publication of completed research findings in peer-reviewed journals. Knowledge-building is a social process just as much as it is a scientific one.
Because human beings are fallible, the social norms of science help to minimize the presence and/or influence of personal bias in the processes through which speculation becomes knowledge. These norms include an expectation of integrity in the design, conduct, interpretation, and publication of research studies. Peer review serves as an additional structure to maintain integrity. Journals do however have a tendency to prefer publishing studies with positive results. This tendency has been demonstrated and is known as "publication bias."
At the same time, as the number of university tenure-track jobs and the availability of grant funding decreases, there is increasing pressure for scientists to publish positive results. The blog Retraction Watch with support from the Center for Open Science has chronicled the rise in the number of scientific retractions since 2010 and maintains a database to document these. In the end, though, both honest mistakes and deliberate scientific fraud are eventually uncovered through peer review and the nature of how knowledge-building works. Knowledge-building is always provisional — in science, new information can always displace what we thought we knew previously.
Another example of scientific integrity is the practice among peer-reviewed journals of requiring disclosure of all sources of financial support for a study, so that readers can judge the extent to which the study could be biased because of who funded the research. As an example, a study concluding that smoking poses no substantial health risks in spite of numerous contradictory studies would be viewed even more suspiciously if it were funded by the Tobacco Institute. By the same token, research on herbs and dietary supplements has sometimes been viewed more critically when funded by companies that manufacture these products.
The philosopher of science, Thomas Kuhn, articulated the idea that scientific world views or paradigms define the kinds of research questions that may legitimately be asked. What is thought to be "legitimate" can vary according to the social norms and assumptions of a culture and what is considered within that culture to be useful or important knowledge. Historians of science have detailed the ways in which the practice of science has sometimes been distorted by dominant cultural biases, such as the infamous Tuskegee study.
Ethics in Health Care Research
It is also important to define how research may legitimately be conducted, a subject that has been influenced by social norms and cultural bias as well. Present-day scientists involved in health care research have a code of ethical principles that must be applied to both human and animal research. With respect to human subjects, two of the most basic principles of ethical clinical research are to:
Experimental studies are especially susceptible to ethical concerns because they involve direct intervention by the researcher in the lives or health of the participants. For this reason, the researcher is expected to make every effort to protect the human rights and well-being of the study's participants. Current standards for research ethics have been formalized since World War II. In the U.S., the Nuremberg Code (1947) and the Declaration of Helsinki (1964, revised in 1975) became the foundation for the formation of the National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects and Behavioral Research. This commission produced a document known as the Belmont Report.
The Belmont Report proposes that three core values should underlie all research endeavors: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. The practical implications of each value are:
An outgrowth of the Belmont Report was the development of U.S. government regulations requiring the establishment of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), to act as ethics committees to safeguard the rights of study participants. IRBs consider the scientific merit of proposed projects in light of the study's potential risks and benefits, and assess the procedures for selecting and recruiting participants, for ensuring appropriate informed consent, and for maintaining confidentiality of private health care information disclosed during the study. The IRB approves the proposed design of the study only if its benefits outweigh its risks, and then monitors the conduct of the study as it progresses. It is standard practice now for journals to require a statement from authors describing how ethical standards for the study were met when submitting a manuscript for publication.
Understanding the background concepts that underlie how scientific research is developed, carried out and reported can enhance our ability to be informed consumers of research. Just as it's important to not believe everything you read on the Internet, it's important to think critically when we read research.
Martha Brown Menard, PhD, LMT, is the director of the Crocker Institute and a licensed massage therapist in Kiawah Island, SC. She is the author of Making Sense of Research (available here). Martha is also the co-executive director of ACCAHC.
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