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Lessons from Functional Neurology
Chiropractic neurology, also known as clinical neuroscience or functional neurology, is moving the chiropractic profession forward by leaps and bounds.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) lists more than 80 common autoimmune diseases including asthma, Crohn's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus.
What are the Meridians?
The meridian and collateral system (jing luo, hereinafter referred to as "Meridians") is comprised of the main meridian channels (jing mai) and the collateral vessels (luo mai). Jing takes from meaning of the Chinese word pathway (also jing) and are the main branches of the system.
Illuminating the Hidden, Freeing the Source
Amongst the Primary Channels, from a classical point of view, the small intestine is perhaps the most important channel to understand. It is one of the least used acupuncture channels in modern acupuncture, yet it within it can be found a wealth of theories from the Ling Shu.
MPA Media Wins More Publishing Awards
The American Society of Business Publication Editors (ASBPE) has honored Dynamic Chiropractic with a national award and two regional awards for editorial excellence, and sister publication DC Practice Insights with two regional awards for graphic design excellence.
Less Time Than Required
Q: When is it appropriate to use a modifier -52? Can I use it for a timed service when I do less than the time required by the code?
Let's Talk About Biceps Injuries at the Elbow
While most muscles cross over only one joint, the biceps crosses two joints: the elbow and the shoulder. Injuries to the lower biceps cause considerable elbow pain. Here's how to assess and treat an injury to this area conservatively.
Work Stress and Musculoskeletal Health: Do Your Patients Get the Connection?
Most people underestimate the impact their job has on their health, especially if that job isn't particularly physically demanding. Big mistake.
Adventures with the Pericardium
My previous column on the San Jiao deserves equal time for SJ's loving partner, the pericardium. I nicknamed SJ the travel meridian – but pericardium can also play a crucial role in air travel.
Guidelines for the Use of Modifier -52
Modifier -52 identifies that a service or procedure has been partially reduced or eliminated at the physician's discretion. This is to indicate the basic service described by the procedure code has been performed, but not all aspects of the service have been performed.
Don't Ignore the Lower Half of the Pelvis (Part 1)
When your patient complains of lower back or pelvic pain, but your usual treatments are not getting the job done, what do you examine and treat? You may be missing important structures in the lower half of the pelvis.
Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes (Part 1)
More than 45 million children ages 6-18 participate in some form of organized athletics, and 75 percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports.
International Congress on Integrative Medicine
"Bridging Research, Clinical Care, Education and Policy" was the theme for the International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health 2016 (ICIMH).
What's New in the NCCIH Strategic Plan
The NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) released its draft strategic plan 2016-2021 for public comment in early spring of 2016.
Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Taiwan Hospitals
This spring, a team of Western medical doctors and TCM practitioners from Cleveland Clinic traveled to Taiwan to visit Kaiser Pharmaceutical Co. (KP), and China Medical University (CMU), Taiwan's leading integrative medicine hospital.
Analyzing Acupuncture Case Studies
Confirm the answer quickly by the elimination method. Take this case study as an example. After two treatments for back pain, a patient presents for a third session complaining of rapid breathing and wheezing that is made worse during cold weather.
Know Your Research: Tips for Evaluating Literature Reviews
Clinical and experimental studies are not the only types of published research we might encounter as we look for evidence to inform our practices. One of the most useful types is the literature review, which summarizes a group of studies.
Chiropractic in the Eyes of the Public: 2nd Gallup-Palmer Poll
The second Gallup / Palmer College poll has been completed, yielding significant additional data regarding Americans' experiences with and perceptions of chiropractic care.
Are Probiotics Doing More Harm Than Good?
Considerable controversy exists concerning the efficacy of probiotic supplements. Very few human studies show any real positive impact on the microbiome or health. The "promise" of probiotics is based on the few animal studies that suggest a positive effect.
The Professional and Practice Benefits of Political Activism
Welcome to election season, a vital part of our American culture. Every two years, without fail, we are bombarded with TV, print materials and phone messages seeking our vote.
Time to Fight for Your Medicare Right
I have heard a lot of noise and a lot of debate about what is going on with Medicare. As an ACA delegate, I often get asked: 'What is the ACA even doing?'
February, 2016, Vol. 16, Issue 02
Evaluating the Use of Gas Discharge Visualization to Measure Massage Therapy Outcomes
By Massage Therapy Foundation Contributor
Contributed by Renee Stenbjorn MPA, LMT; April Neufeld LMT; Jolie Haun PhD, EdS, LMT
Massage therapy outcomes research is commonly conducted on individual systems of the body, such as the nervous, immune and cardiovascular systems.However, therapists often observe and report an observable effect of massage that impacts the whole person, represented by a general sense of relaxation or rejuvenation that recipients present after a massage. Research in a recent publication of the Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, published by one of our contributing reviewers, Jolie Haun and her colleagues, examined a potential method of evaluating massage therapy outcomes to capture these whole person outcomes using an innovative measure.
The physiological benefits of massage are well documented and, at this time, widely accepted by the public as well as the medical community. Some benefits of massage can be easily measured, such as effects on immune function and sleep patterns. These findings can be measured physiologically or with biomarkers such as immune cell counts, serotonin levels and electrocardiograms. The validity of these findings is considered valid as the measures have been reproduced across studies.
Subjective self-reporting measures are used to demonstrate outcomes such as decreases in stress and anxiety. While many massage studies rely on self-reporting questionnaires for these outcomes, some researchers in the field are seeking a more objectively measurable tool for evaluating changes in subjects receiving massage. This research study had several objectives: evaluating a specific tool to assess the energetic changes a client undergoes during a massage session; evaluating the physical, psychological and emotional effects of massage using standard self-reporting methods; and determining the correlation of gas discharge visualization (GDV) parameters with traditional self-reporting outcome measures. The researchers use the term "bioenergetics effects" to describe this change many experience as a result of the massage.
The researchers describe GDV measurement as a means of "electrophoton capture" (EPC) suggesting, "The GDV uses modern optics, electronics and computer processing for analyzing photon emissions stimulated by a pulsed electromagnetic field." The authors theorize that the energy emitted from a person can indicate the individual's bioenergetic field. Thus, it should be able to be measured and quantified. The theory is that the energy photons represent the dynamic bioenergy of the person and the image represents their energy field. The image is capturing the displacement of gas particles emitting from the subject, either from fingertips or a full body projection. It is theorized that the emissions represent the level and balance of energy flow in the meridians, but it is important to note that the authors state, "GDV measures are not very well defined regarding their meaning." Although this device is widely known to measure these discharge levels, the mechanism remains unclear.
The research question explored by these authors is whether or not the GDV imaging pre- and post-massage correlates with self-reported changes of the client's physical, emotional and energetic experience as a result of the massage to examine the feasibility of using such an innovative measure to evaluate whole person outcomes associated with massage. There were 23 research subjects and inclusion criteria focused on healthy subjects who had received massage in the past. Four massage therapists provided massage to participants, each with at least five years of professional experience and each therapist was trained in the Swedish protocol used in this study.
The GDV measurements were used as a dependent variable, i.e., did the measurements change in response to the massage the subjects received. The GDV measurements were taken from the fingertips of the subjects. Therefore, the massage did not include the hand to avoid the measurements being effected by application of lotion used in the treatment. GDV electrophotography was used to assess the bioenergetics whole person effects of massage therapy. The authors explain the 16 parameter measurements of the full-body assessment used in the study. Briefly, there are 16 areas of the body emitting photons and these are captured by the device then analyzed for strength and symmetry of signals.
Each subject was given one 50-minute full-body Swedish massage according to the protocol. The questionnaires and GDV measurements were taken before and after the massage. The subjects were asked to self-report items on Visual Analog Scales, including pain, muscle tension and stress at several time points, two before the massage and two after the massage. The data shows a statistically significant change in self-reported levels of pain, stress and muscle tensions and some quantitative changes in the bioenergetics field.
It is important to remember that the study was designed to assess the correlation between changes in the GDV measurements and the self-reported outcomes. It is widely accepted that massage changes self-reported levels of stress, pain and muscle tensions. As seen in many other studies, this is true in this study. This study aimed to see if an objective bio-marker measure correlated with the self-reported changes. Findings indicated the GDV bio-marker measures were significantly correlated with the self-reported change in measures.
The study examined 16 GDV measurements on each subject, looking at projections of energy from the right side of the body, left side of the body, etc. They also measured the symmetry of the projects between the right and left side of the body. Of these 16 measurements, the most significant finding was an increase in symmetry on the front of the body – theoretically representing a whole person measure of energetic symmetry. Some subjects showed an increase in energy on one side of the body, contributing to a more balanced field. Other subjects showed a decrease in energy on one side, also achieving more balance in the field. They suggest the increase in balance of the field demonstrates that some people need to relax during a massage while others need to experience rejuvenation. The authors state that this change in symmetry shows a positive finding for the potential use of GDV in future massage studies. The frontal symmetry measurement is one of 16 GDV measurements that were not significantly correlated. The measurements on this one field variable were mixed between increasing and decreasing energy projections.
The authors state the pilot study findings warrant further study of the use of GDV to measure massage outcomes and report common limitations with massage therapy studies, recommending future studies with larger randomized controlled trials to further explore the potential use of the GDV. If we can identify a valid method for evaluating the energetic changes people feel with massage, we can advance the science of massage research.
This research, though a small pilot study, has implications for research and practice. The validation of non-traditional biomarkers to evaluate the whole person effects of massage is not only needed, but can advance the science of massage therapy outcomes research. Although these findings warrant further investigation, much larger randomized controlled trials will be necessary to determine the role of GDV in measuring massage outcomes. This research also speaks to the observations that massage recipients often experience: individualized effects of massage that may result in relaxation or rejuvenation, depending on the person's need; and changes that impact not just individual bodily systems but the whole person.
If you are interested in learning more about the topic of research in massage, consider attending the International Massage Therapy Research Conference. It will be held in Seattle May 12-15, 2016. For more information, visit www.massagetherapyfoundation.org/research-conference/.
Case reports also play an important part in advancing the skills of massage therapy practitioners. The Massage Therapy Foundation Practitioner Case Report Contest is now open. The deadline to submit is October 3, 2016. For more information, visit www.massagetherapyfoundation.org/student-practitioner-case-report-contests/.
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