resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
DVT: Know the Signs and You Could Save a Life
I lost a friend several months ago. He died from a pulmonary embolism (PE) secondary to a deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) that originated in his lower leg. Bobby was in his mid-60s, soft-spoken and had a big heart.
Meshing TCM With Environmental Pediatrics: Where's the Overlap?
Pediatrics has a long history within Chinese medicine dating back to the late Han dynasty (i.e., the late 200s CE), with the two primary areas of emphasis being herbal medicine and xiao er tui na (pediatric massage).
Branding: Set Your Practice Apart
Dr. Brad started his practice seven years ago on a shoestring budget. He created his generic logo in five minutes using a website because he didn't have the time to figure out how to make something special.
End of an Era Looms at NYCC
New York Chiropractic College recently announced that Dr. Frank Nicchi will retire in August 2017 after 36 years with the college, the past 17 as president.
Chiro School Reunion: Whatever Happened to...?
I opened the door to the closet slowly, carefully, since I knew it contained a large number of precariously stacked file boxes. It also held numerous outdated gizmos with electrical cords of various lengths that could trip or strangle a person.
News in Brief
New President / CEO Takes Office at Yo San University. Electroacupuncture for Constipation?
Little Sticker, Big Impact
It's the end of an election year. Hilary Clinton and Donald Trump were the subject of conversation for everyone, everywhere for the entire 2016 calendar year. I don't think any of us can deny that this election affected us all very deeply on a personal level.
Can a Multivitamin Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence?
There is a great deal of controversy regarding the value of multivitamin supplements in cancer prevention. However, with respect to preventing breast cancer recurrence, an important study was published in the Journal of Breast Cancer Research and Treatment in 2011 by Kwan ML, et al.
A Simple Protocol for Holiday Stress
It's winter, a time when we should be deep in reflection, eating warming foods and sleeping long hours. Following nature's rhythms, we restore our bodies and minds in preparation for the renewal of spring.
Another Chance to Make a Difference
Just a few months ago, "the worst natural disaster to strike the United States since Hurricane Sandy" hit Louisiana. During this storm, one area experienced 31 inches of rain in 15 hours as almost 7 trillion gallons of water rained down in just one week across the state.
2016: A Year in the Life of Acupuncture
Happy Holidays, may you, your family and friends have peace, joy and blessings throughout this special time of year. As 2016 comes to a close, we can look back and celebrate the many events and accomplishments for the profession of acupuncture.
Molecular Motors: Tiny Machines Behind the Rhythm of Life
In the clinic, we aim to restore healthy patterns of movement for qi that has gotten trapped or misdirected, or may have even collapsed. We may be focused on freeing stagnation, releasing heat or redirecting counterflow qi, but it often comes down to helping re-establish a flow of sorts.
A Letter to the Profession from the New President at AAAOM
Volunteering for a national, nonprofit organization brings with it such highs, lows, and accomplishments, as well as a steep learning curve.
A First for the Profession: CCE Accredits First Chiropractic Residencies
The Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) has awarded accreditation to all five chiropractic residency programs currently administered at Veterans Administration facilities, "the first residency programs in the nation ever to be awarded this distinction, a significant advancement in the evolution of chiropractic education," according to a VA press release announcing the milestone.
Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes (Pt. 2)
Most overuse injuries are benign, but there are some high-risk injuries that, if unrecognized or inappropriately treated, can result in significant loss in time from the sport or even require leaving the sport.
All Fiber Is Not Created Equal
Sometimes the best place to start is at the end. So, the conclusion of this article is that all fiber is good ... but some fiber is better. Let's break it down. There are two main types of fiber: soluble fiber and insoluble fiber.
Assessing Core Stability and ROM: 5 Basic Checks
One of the first steps in addressing core stability is assessing static posture, ranges of motion, and motion of the pelvic bones, sacrum, femurs, lumbar spine and thoracic spine.
A Q & A About Updated Codes
Yes, indeed there was an update to ICD-10 on Oct.1, 2016. This is a regular update to the diagnosis coding system and this type of update will occur every Oct. 1, just as it did when the ICD-9 system was in place.
Southwest Acupuncture College Brings It to Division 1 Athletes
When Michael Phelps' photograph with the distinctive round marks left by cupping went viral, the Division 1 student athletes treated through the Dal Ward Athletic Center at the University of Colorado (CU) could relate.
Dedicated to Defending Chiropractic
Whether you're a veteran DC or a first-trimester student, the name George McAndrews should be part and parcel of your professional vernacular, as familiar as the word chiropractic.
Herbs for Digestion: The Power of Bitter
Many cultures (and indeed herbal clinicians) around the world have long respected the role of bitter herbs and foods for promoting digestion. For example, aperitifs – drinks consumed before a meal to stimulate appetite and digestion – were originally derived from bitter herbs.
What We Can Learn From Spine Surgery
Patients with lumbar stenosis presumably present for conservative care to improve their quality of life and avoid surgery. However, providing clear guidance to these patients can be difficult for a number of reasons.
July, 2014, Vol. 14, Issue 07
Forced Work Reduction for Massage Therapists
By Massage Therapy Foundation Contributor
Contributed by Derek R. Austin, MS, CMT, BCTMB, CSCS, MK Brennan, MS, RN, LMBT, and April Neufeld, BS, LMP
This month's Massage Therapy Foundation research column looks at the factors that lead to the reduction of work hours for massage therapists and bodyworkers due to injury, referred to as injury-forced work reduction (IFWR).Massage therapy and bodywork are considered to be very physically demanding professions. The authors cite that 80% of people who begin careers as massage therapists and bodywork practitioners drop out after two years. Previous research has shown a high risk for musculoskeletal disorders among massage therapists, including carpal tunnel syndrome and low back pain. There has been little research to date, however, on what demographics, work attitudes or perceptions make a massage practitioner more likely to become injured. This new research from the team at Temple University hopes to illuminate some of these issues.
The article, "Correlates of Injury-forced Work Reduction for Massage Therapists and Bodywork Practitioners," was published in the International Journal of Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork (IJTMB) in 2013. (Free full text is available from IJTMB.) The authors define injury-forced work reduction as a "work-related injury adversely affecting the hours worked or number of clients treated." The authors tested two hypotheses. Their first hypothesis (H1) was that accumulated costs – the amount of time, personal effort, education, money and training that a practitioner has invested in their occupation – would be associated with injury-forced work reduction. The authors further hypothesized (H2) that physical exhaustion – including body fatigue, low energy, tiredness and work exhaustion, mental frustration, feeling overwhelmed and being emotionally strained – would both be associated with injury-forced work reduction.
An online survey was conducted in the fall of 2006 by the Federation of State Massage Therapy Board (FSMTB) about Career Patterns (CP) along with their Job Task Analysis (JTA). The JTA required approximately 45 minutes to complete followed by 15 minutes for the CP survey. There were 2,089 massage therapists and bodyworkers who completed the CP survey, making up approximately 3% of the 75,000 practitioners contacted across the United States. The survey was made up of questions organized into five groups: 1) Control/demographic variable set; 2) Work attitude/perception variables set; 3) Accumulated cost variables set; 4) Exhaustion variables set; and 5) Injury-forced Work Reduction (IFWR). IFWR was measured by two questions: "I can no longer work the hours I previously worked due to occupational injury," and "I can no longer treat as many clients per day due to work injury (e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome, lower back pain)." Most items were measured using a Likert scale, where 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = slightly disagree, 4 = slightly agree, 5 = agree, and 6 = strongly agree.
Overall, the researchers found "high levels of job satisfaction (5.47/6) and affective occupation commitment (5.44/6); low levels of accumulated costs (2.76/6), continuing education costs (2.77/6), and physical exhaustion (2.46/6); and very low levels of work exhaustion (1.75/6) and IFWR (1.84/6)." Affective occupation commitment was measured with questions such as, "I strongly identify with the massage/bodywork/somatic therapy occupation." Continuing education costs were measured with questions such as, "It costs too much for me to take required continuing education." In general, massage therapists and bodyworkers, or at least those who responded to the survey, are satisfied with their jobs and identify with their occupations. They also have generally low levels of costs invested, costs associated with continuing education, mental and physical exhaustion and injury.
The authors used a stepwise regression model to evaluate their hypotheses. In other words, they added each variable set to the model one at a time in order to control for demographic and other variables. Among the control/demographics variables set, being female and having more years in practice were significantly associated with IFWR. None of the individual work attitude/perception variables were significant. Having more continuing education costs but not accumulated costs was significantly associated with IFWR, partially supporting the authors' first hypothesis (H1). Physical exhaustion and work exhaustion were both significantly associated with IFWR, supporting the authors' second hypothesis. Overall, 34% of the variance in IFWR was explained by all of the variables that were studied, and physical exhaustion was the single greatest contributor to IFWR.
The authors note that their finding of physical exhaustion relating to IFWR had the strongest support and was consistent with other research on the physically demanding nature of massage therapy and its occupational risks. Work exhaustion had a significant independent positive association with IFWR. Thus, both physical wear and tear and the mental fatigue of work exhaustion appear to increase injury risk for massage therapists and bodyworkers. The authors speculate that such mental fatigue may be related to particular work factors, including isolated work settings, physical concerns and possibly public misconceptions about the nature of massage therapy or bodywork. The authors conclude that taking breaks between patient appointments and varying the techniques used could improve a massage therapist's physical and mental energy and thereby limit these risk factors.
The authors compared this research to their previous research on massage therapists and bodyworkers. They write, "None of the four work attitude and perception variables that each significantly impacted being forced to stay in occupation (i.e., job satisfaction, affective occupation commitment, occupation identification or limited occupation alternatives) had a significant impact on IFWR in this study." IFWR appears to be a separate variable that is highly influenced by certain types of accumulated costs (specifically, the perception of high continuing education costs), physical and work exhaustion, being female and working for more years.
There are several important limitations to this research study. Chief among them is that correlation cannot be separated from causation because this research is a cross-sectional study. In other words, it is possible that higher IFWR causes higher physical exhaustion, and not the other way around. The authors also did not identify specific injuries among the massage therapists and bodywork practitioners surveyed. Finally, the respondents were self-selected, and participants could possibly have different characteristics than the overall population of massage therapists. For example, a massage therapist who has reduced his or her work hours due to carpal tunnel syndrome may not volunteer to complete a one-hour online survey.
For massage therapists and bodyworkers, it is worth further investigation as to the short career span for practitioners and what preventative measures can be taken. Addressing IFWR and any of the contributors to it would be beneficial, especially as the authors also cite an expected growth in massage therapy and bodywork by 20% between 2010 and 2020.
Not sure what to make of a regression analysis, correlation, confidence interval, p-value or t-test? The MTF offers an easy-to-use online course, where you will learn basic research vocabulary and concepts, how to use various databases to look up research, evaluate published research articles for their validity and apply research findings to massage practice to improve outcomes. Basics of Research Literacy is an online, 8-hour, NCBTMB-approved workshop that teaches massage therapists and educators how to incorporate the principles of research literacy into your practice and teaching.
To learn more about the effects of massage therapy, you can review the Massage Therapy Foundation article archives, read accepted MTF Research Grant abstracts, or search PubMed for massage therapy studies.
Click here for more information about Massage Therapy Foundation Contributor.
Join the conversation
Comments are encouraged, but you must follow our User Agreementcomments powered by Disqus
Keep it civil and stay on topic. No profanity, vulgar, racist or hateful comments or personal attacks. Anyone who chooses to exercise poor judgement will be blocked. By posting your comment, you agree to allow MPA Media the right to republish your name and comment in additional MPA Media publications without any notification or payment.