resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
A Vibrating Capsule for Constipation? Relevance to Your Chiropractic Practice
The relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) complaints and back pain is not typically written about or discussed.
When Big Pharma Meets Chinese Medicine
Earlier this year, Bayer made a media splash with their decision to buy the Dihon Pharmaceutical Group Co., a Chinese TCM manufacturer.
The Truth About Herbs
I appreciate the effort and research put into the article written in the June issue of Acupuncture Today regarding pesticides and Chinese herbs.
The Spirit of the Point
After receiving a large amount of positive feedback on my San Zhen Protocols series, I have decided to focus this article on some relevant clinical aspects of acupuncture therapy prior to moving on to San Zhen Protocols III.
Pain Underfoot: Metatarsalgia
Foot pain can interfere significantly with normal activities and severely limit participation in sports. Metatarsalgia is foot pain involving the metatarsal bones in the forefoot – the complaint of pain on the bottom of the ball of the foot.
Why Young People Need Chiropractic Now More Than Ever
According to a recent study published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, "It is now widely acknowledged that neck pain (NP), mid back pain (MBP), and low back pain (LBP) (spinal pain) start early in life and that the lifetime prevalence increases rapidly during adolescence to reach adult levels at the age of 18."
CCE Finally Takes a "Baby Step" Toward Reform
During a 16-month period from October 2010 to February 2012, I devoted four separate columns to the heavy-handed attempt by the Council on Chiropractic Education to radically change the chiropractic profession through the accreditation process.
The Science Behind Happiness
Are you happy right now? Whether yes or no, there are a myriad of reasons why you feel that way. A whole academic discipline has developed to find out what causes or obstructs happiness, and how to amplify it.
MPA Media Wins 7 Publishing Awards
MPA Media, publisher of Dynamic Chiropractic and DC Practice Insights, among other titles, has been recognized for editorial and design excellence with an unprecedented seven publishing awards by the American Society of Business Publication Editors (ASBPE), the nation's largest organization for business-to-business publications.
History of Animal Acupuncture: Part II
In Part I of this article, I had gone back to 1969 and tried to describe the atmosphere and events of that year that engulfed many of the younger generation, some who were all the core members of the National Acupuncture Association.
MPA Media Wins Seven Publishing Awards
MPA Media, publisher of Acupuncture Today, among other titles, has been recognized for editorial and design excellence with an unprecendented seven publishing awards by the ASBPE, the nation's largest organization for business-to-business publications.
9 Common Causes of Thyroid Imbalance and How You Can Help
How you sleep, how easily you wake up, and how much energy and stamina you have during the day are directly related to levels of the thyroid hormones.
Waking Up the Gluteus Maximus
In previous articles in this series, we expounded on the importance of the gluteus maximus (GM) in athletic performance and protecting the knee from injury. We also know there is a link between iliotibial band syndrome and GM weakness.
A Glimpse Into China's Top Brain Hospital
The sounds of the city pass through the open window are overwhelming the microphone - car horns, construction machinery - and then there's the family at the adjacent bed talking loudly on cell phones, yet you can still hear the faint beep of our patients monitoring equipment.
News in Brief
National Chiropractic Health Month: Be Proactive; Collegiate Roundup: Academic Appointments at Parker, Logan.
Don't Turn a 2 Into a 10
The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale1 is so useful because it can be used by almost anyone. Patients can use the numbers associated with the faces depicted on the scale or select the face that demonstrates their current level of pain from 0-10.
Get Ready For AOM Day
This year, AOM Day 2014 falls on Friday, (October 24th). This is a great opportunity to make your AOM Day celebration or event even bigger by extending it throughout the weekend!
Chiropractic Research in Review
Chiropractic Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis; Cost / Benefit Analysis: Different Doses of SMT for Low Back Pain; Imaging for Occult Rib and Costal Cartilage Fractures; Treating Neck Pain: Thoracic Thrust Manipulation vs. Non-Thrust Mobilization.
Healing Community Trauma in Israel and Palestine
It's the beginning of August and Israel and Hamas have just agreed to a 72-hour ceasefire after a month of brutal fighting. In the last four weeks, 1,830 Palestinians and 67 Israelis have been killed.
Thoughts to Live By
When speaking to your patients about their health make sure to ponder the following points and have them assess if they are making themselves even more sick by the thoughts they have about life. Are these some of the traits and thoughts that your patients might have?
April, 2013, Vol. 13, Issue 04
Massage Improves Range of Motion for Children with Burn Injuries
By Massage Therapy Foundation Contributor
Contributed By Jolie Haun, PhD, EdS, LMT, Derek R. Austin, MS, CMT, Beth Barberree, BA, RMT
Understanding the effects of massage is critical to advance the field. Yet, understanding the impact for a child with burn injuries is critical to improving the quality of life for someone who has experienced considerable trauma. This month's research review by the Massage Therapy Foundation looks into a pilot study conducted to examine the effect of massage on mood and range of motion (ROM) in eight children post recovery from severe burns.
Many children with burn injuries undergo considerable care in recovery. Treatment options are limited, so often patients with burn injuries pursue alternative therapies such as massage to address issues related to psychological and physical outcomes associated with burns. Little research has examined the effects of massage in children with burn injuries. Those published suggest that massage decreases distress related to change in wound dressing and may decrease severe itching. Now, Morien and colleagues extend current research with children by examining the effect of massage on mood and range of motion (ROM). Based on research conducted with adult burn survivors, the research team predicted massage would increase mood and ROM.
Participants were eight children attending a camp for pediatric burn survivors, with a mean age of 13.5 years (range 10–17 years). Five children participated in the study for 4–5 days and three participated for 3 days. All participants had thermal burns to several body parts, including arms, legs, trunk and face. Massage was provided on healed third degree burns that had previously required skin grafts. The authors defined third degree burns as the loss of skin structures at a depth that reaches the subcutaneous fat and fascia, which includes epidermis, dermis and all skin organs. Areas receiving massage were well-healed, with 2–16 years since the burn.
Four therapists participated in data collection and were blinded to the results until the end of the study. Therapists with advanced training in massage for burn scars offered massage sessions that lasted 20–25 minutes once daily, for up to 5 days. Massage provided on scar tissue consisted of 5 minutes of lengthening using long light strokes (effleurage); 5 minutes of stretching and rolling strokes between hands, fingers or thumbs (petrissage); and 2–5 minutes of small cross fiber movements (friction) to loosen the scar tissue. The last 5 minutes of the massage session included general lengthening and rolling movements. Massage therapists discussed possible needs or concerns regarding the massage before and after the sessions.
Participants reported their mood before the first massage session and after their last massage session. A visual scale using "smiley faces" that corresponded to a numerical scale was used for data collection. This method is common when conducting research with children. ROM of the knee, neck and shoulder joints was measured in degrees using a goniometer. ROM measurements were also taken on non-massaged tissue contralateral to scarred tissue to serve as a control comparison. The authors conducted a statistical analysis to determine differences in ROM and mood from pre- to post-massage.
Findings of the study indicate ROM increased after the massage sessions, in contrast to the contralateral control tissue. An objective scar assessment was not conducted; however, subjective observations by the massage therapists noted that scar tissue was red and firm before massage, while participants' scars post-massage were flesh colored, softer and the skin was more easily stretched. There was no significant difference in mood across time.
Authors concluded massage increased ROM in children with burn scars, which is consistent with studies showing that massage increases ROM in patients with injuries not resulting from burns. The authors were surprised to find no change in mood following massage considering findings of improved mood in previous studies with adult participants. The authors contend mood findings may have resulted from a "ceiling effect" because participants already had an elevated mood upon arrival to the camp.
The authors noted some study limitations including: small sample size; a quick and easy mood instrument that was likely too simple and lacked the sensitivity to measure changes accurately; and because the participants were 2–16 years post burn injury, their emotional coping strategies toward their scars had already occurred. An additional limitation, that the authors failed to note, was their sample size was too small to appropriately apply a t-test statistic; such that the authors cannot make assumptions about the data being normally distributed with equal variances, as assumed when applying parametric statistics. A non-parametric analysis method such as the Mann-Whitney U-test would be a more convincing basis for the authors to conclude significant changes in ROM with such a small sample size.
The authors do suggest more research using larger samples is needed, with measures to include affective states such as anxiety. They also propose that further investigation should address whether massage effects vary depending on stage of recovery (i.e. new versus old burn scars). The authors are planning a follow-up study to address research questions related to attitude, anxiety and self-esteem.
Though the study sample is small, this work provides good information to support the advancement of therapeutic massage for children with severe burn injuries. First, though this area of research is lacking in conclusive findings, this study does support the need for subsequent work to further explore the use of massage therapy for this vulnerable population. Second, massage therapists should use these findings as a basis for recognizing that this vulnerable population can in fact benefit from massage therapy. Finally, this research supports the expansion of scope for the application of massage therapy.
Similar to other serious conditions like cancer, there was a time when massage therapists may have avoided providing massage therapy to severe burn scar tissue for fear of causing more harm than good. However, through evidence-based research such as this reported study, we are learning as a profession when and how to appropriately apply massage therapy for individuals with burn injuries. When considering providing massage treatments for someone with severe burn scarring, it is strongly recommended that massage therapists acquire special training and consult with a physician before providing treatments.
Editor's note: For more information about massage therapy research, visit the Massage Therapy Foundation at www.massagetherapyfoundation.org.
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