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Adventures with the Pericardium
My previous column on the San Jiao deserves equal time for SJ's loving partner, the pericardium. I nicknamed SJ the travel meridian – but pericardium can also play a crucial role in air travel.
Know Your Research: Tips for Evaluating Literature Reviews
Clinical and experimental studies are not the only types of published research we might encounter as we look for evidence to inform our practices. One of the most useful types is the literature review, which summarizes a group of studies.
Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes (Part 1)
More than 45 million children ages 6-18 participate in some form of organized athletics, and 75 percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) lists more than 80 common autoimmune diseases including asthma, Crohn's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus.
Work Stress and Musculoskeletal Health: Do Your Patients Get the Connection?
Most people underestimate the impact their job has on their health, especially if that job isn't particularly physically demanding. Big mistake.
Are Probiotics Doing More Harm Than Good?
Considerable controversy exists concerning the efficacy of probiotic supplements. Very few human studies show any real positive impact on the microbiome or health. The "promise" of probiotics is based on the few animal studies that suggest a positive effect.
Code Connection: Guidelines for the Use of Modifier -52
Modifier -52 identifies that a service or procedure has been partially reduced or eliminated at the physician's discretion. This is to indicate the basic service described by the procedure code has been performed, but not all aspects of the service have been performed.
International Congress on Integrative Medicine
"Bridging Research, Clinical Care, Education and Policy" was the theme for the International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health 2016 (ICIMH).
MPA Media Wins More Publishing Awards
The American Society of Business Publication Editors (ASBPE) has honored Dynamic Chiropractic with a national award and two regional awards for editorial excellence, and sister publication DC Practice Insights with two regional awards for graphic design excellence.
Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Taiwan Hospitals
This spring, a team of Western medical doctors and TCM practitioners from Cleveland Clinic traveled to Taiwan to visit Kaiser Pharmaceutical Co. (KP), and China Medical University (CMU), Taiwan's leading integrative medicine hospital.
Let's Talk About Biceps Injuries at the Elbow
While most muscles cross over only one joint, the biceps crosses two joints: the elbow and the shoulder. Injuries to the lower biceps cause considerable elbow pain. Here's how to assess and treat an injury to this area conservatively.
The Professional and Practice Benefits of Political Activism
Welcome to election season, a vital part of our American culture. Every two years, without fail, we are bombarded with TV, print materials and phone messages seeking our vote.
Time to Fight for Your Medicare Right
I have heard a lot of noise and a lot of debate about what is going on with Medicare. As an ACA delegate, I often get asked: 'What is the ACA even doing?'
What's New in the NCCIH Strategic Plan
The NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) released its draft strategic plan 2016-2021 for public comment in early spring of 2016.
Lessons from Functional Neurology
Chiropractic neurology, also known as clinical neuroscience or functional neurology, is moving the chiropractic profession forward by leaps and bounds.
Analyzing Acupuncture Case Studies
Confirm the answer quickly by the elimination method. Take this case study as an example. After two treatments for back pain, a patient presents for a third session complaining of rapid breathing and wheezing that is made worse during cold weather.
Less Time Than Required
Q: When is it appropriate to use a modifier -52? Can I use it for a timed service when I do less than the time required by the code?
What are the Meridians?
The meridian and collateral system (jing luo, hereinafter referred to as "Meridians") is comprised of the main meridian channels (jing mai) and the collateral vessels (luo mai). Jing takes from meaning of the Chinese word pathway (also jing) and are the main branches of the system.
Chiropractic in the Eyes of the Public: 2nd Gallup-Palmer Poll
The second Gallup / Palmer College poll has been completed, yielding significant additional data regarding Americans' experiences with and perceptions of chiropractic care.
A Study of Relationships
Sa-Ahm's five element acupuncture method is known to be one of the most effective acupuncture techniques in Korea because it gives an instant response at the time of treatment and has a high success rate in resolving chronic problems.
Don't Ignore the Lower Half of the Pelvis (Part 1)
When your patient complains of lower back or pelvic pain, but your usual treatments are not getting the job done, what do you examine and treat? You may be missing important structures in the lower half of the pelvis.
Illuminating the Hidden, Freeing the Source
Amongst the Primary Channels, from a classical point of view, the small intestine is perhaps the most important channel to understand. It is one of the least used acupuncture channels in modern acupuncture, yet it within it can be found a wealth of theories from the Ling Shu.
April, 2013, Vol. 13, Issue 04
The Current Emphasis on Clinical Research and Essential Oils
By Shellie Enteen, RA, BA, LMBT
The use of essential oils to benefit body, mind and spirit greatly predates the modern era, the term "aromatherapy" and the current emphasis on clinical research. Empirical evidence and information passed down through generations and occasionally recorded in books was the norm.Despite the advent of the microscope and aromatherapy research pioneers such as Rene Maurice Gattefosse, scientific investigation into the affect of essential oil components was not common. And of course, the recipients of essential oil blends responded in a positive way, even before the chemical components were identified and classified.
But as we massage therapists know, today it is important to have evidence backed up by scientific studies to create agreed upon facts and practices. Those branches of the healing arts that are given the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) designation are working hard to present these facts. For aromatherapists, especially when they are hoping to teach this modality to other health professionals, the need to produce verification through research is paramount. The scientific community just won't respect this field without evidence that meets their criteria.
In the aromatherapy community, the idea of research and even the emphasis on the chemistry of essential oils has produced widely divergent points of view. Just as it would seem odd to have to prove the soothing effect of gentle effleurage, to some aromatherapists the historical evidence for the relaxing affect of lavender is enough. Some even fear that going the scientific route is an attack on the basic human element which is so important in both the selection and blending of essential oils. Some are in favor of the clinical case study as a middle ground for proving the reliability of their art. But, there is a growing movement in the aromatherapy community to investigate the chemicals on their own and find personal justification and acceptance through studies proving effects.
Salvatore Battaglia tells us that while research can help create clients who need this proof and that it can also provide recognition and legislation in favor of essential oils there are some basic problems when approaching research in this field. In my opinion, the most important is this: "The essential oils are complex pharmacologically active chemicals. The whole essential oil will have different properties from that of any single constituent alone. Most pharmacological studies involve the use of individual chemical constituents." (The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy, 2nd Edition, 2003.)
A principle that describes this is called the "quenching affect," wherein the presence of all chemical components may reduce the potential intensity of one component. An example would be the chemical limonene. Considered a strong skin irritant, limonene is present in many citrus and citrus note oils where it is brought to a manageable level due to its amount relative to the other chemicals present. However, the focus on the effect of limonene on its own has resulted in legislation in Europe that leaves perfumers with the great problem of no longer being able to use the essential oil of lemon (Citrus limon) in their formulas because it contains limonene. Many of these perfumes have been worn for hundreds of years without ill effect.
Another issue for research in the field of aromatherapy was simply lack of funds. Much of what we knew about physiological and skin care properties of essential oils came from research conducted for the cosmetic and food industries, where the funds and the need for specific research on affects have been vital to ensure public safety. But, as the need for more effective methods of treating chronic pain, anti-biotic resistant bacteria and other health related problems has grown, more research has been going into the relevant properties of essential oils.
If there is a need to find research regarding essential oils, there are some online resources that will yield results. PubMed is one: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. And there are good texts that provide research information as well. These include the Aromatherapy Practitioner Reference Manual by Sylla Sheppard-Hanger, Natural Aromatic Materials – Odours and Origins by Tony Burfield, Essential Oils 2008-2011 by Dr. Brian Lawrence. Aromatherapist Jane Buckle, PhD, RN teaches clinically based aromatherapy and has two books, Clinical Aromatherapy and Clinical Aromatherapy for Nurses. She has also authored an article on how to conduct clinical research for aromatherapy that can be found in a special e-book, published in 2012 by the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy on the topic of research and essential oils.
On a happy research note, it can be said that the scientific conclusions about the dangers of lavender oil used by young boys has now been disproven. The New England Journal of Medicine had run an article some years ago concluding that the development of breast tissue in two pre-pubescent boys (gynecomastia) residing in the same town (not in the same family) was a result of minute amounts of lavender and tea tree essential oils in personal care products from the health food store. This prestigious scientific magazine was unwilling to publish letters from well known aromatherapists refuting this notion. Robert Tisserand, one of our foremost colleagues, posted a link on Facebook this week with the note, "Nice to know that Lavender oil is conclusively not estrogenic." (This hormone like effect was said to be the cause of the gynecomastia.) Read the whole story here: http://roberttisserand.com/2013/02/lavender-oil-is-not-estrogenic.
Click here for previous articles by Shellie Enteen, RA, BA, LMBT.
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