resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
First Do No Harm?
There's no questioning the frightening nature of breast cancer, which strikes one in eight women in the U.S. – eclipsed only by skin cancer in terms of prevalence.
ACA or ICA: Which Best Represents You?
Last June, I was honored to represent Texas ICA members as their representative assemblyman at the ICA Annual Meeting in Kansas City.
Reducing the Autogenic Inhibition Reflex: Making Weak Muscles Strong
The autogenic inhibition (AI) reflex is a sudden relaxation of a muscle in response to excess tension.
Medicine is Clumsy, Don't You Be
All medical systems have clumsiness in them. If the technique isn't, the practitioner is. Everyone in every form of medicine is striving to improve. That is why we call it practice.
We Get Letters & Email
A House Divided? (May 1 issue) provoked significant response from readers. Here are several of the surprisingly similar comments we received.
Giving Vets the Care They Deserve
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administers the largest integrated health care system in the United States.
Integrating Art with Clinical Practice for Patients with PTSD: The Artemis Project
Are you restricted by those one-on-one clinic dynamics? Why not join colleagues and clients in experimental group settings? Three of us volunteered to do just that in Austin on behalf of women veteranss from all branches of the service.
Professional Credentialing and Board Certification: An Ethical Faux Pas
Because of the Affordable Care Act, health care systems are coordinating care through accountable care organizations (ACOs) in order to reduce the cost of care and improve quality of care.
Rethinking Musculoskeletal Pain – A Public Health Perspective
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is the world's oldest and largest association of its kind, founded more than 140 years ago and boasting over 25,000 members.
Our Biggest Challenges to Compete in Wellness Care
In the first article in this four-article series [May 1 DC], I made the case that chiropractors should either embrace offering lifestyle wellness in their practices or face the possibility of losing their place in the wellness care marketplace.
5 Simple Steps to Create an Effective Marketing Calendar
In the educational experience of most healthcare practitioners, business and marketing are overlooked topics.
The Acupuncturist's Problem
I want share with you some observations and insights into what seems to be the most common problem my colleagues in the acupuncture profession struggles with. If you also struggle with this problem, I hope you get a valuable "aha" moment from reading this.
A Poor Choice for Pain Relief
Acetaminophen is the most popular pain reliever in the U.S., accounting for an estimated 27 billion annual doses as of 2009. With 100,000-plus hospital visits a year by users, it's also the most likely to be taken inappropriately.
Green Tea Improves Cognitive Function in Elderly Subjects
Publishing their results in the journal Nutrients in May 2014, researchers showed that drinking the equivalent of 2-4 cups of brewed green tea (or bottled tea) daily improved cognitive function or reduced the progression of cognitive dysfunction in elderly subjects.
Animal Acupuncture: A Case Study in the Treatment of Traumatic Injury in the Equine
The rise of animal acupuncture in the U.S. began in the early 1970's as a result of the work by members of the National Acupuncture Association in Westwood, Calif.
5 Tips for Using Pinterest to Market Your Practice
Pinterest is a very popular, but often under-utilized, social media platform where people can bookmark, or "pin," fun and interesting things from all across the internet.
Spieth Thanks His Chiropractor After Historic Masters Win
Jordan Spieth didn't just capture the hearts of golf enthusiasts worldwide with his record-setting, wire-to-wire victory at the 79th Masters Tournament.
How Much Do You Know About the Benefits of Birds Nest?
Edible bird's nest is the nest made by the Swiftlet bird of Southeast Asia that is usually prepared as a soup and prized in Chinese culture as a healthful delicacy.
PCOM Granted Regional Accreditation
Pacific College of Oriental Medicine (PCOM) recently announce it has received regional accreditation from the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). This achievement reflects five years of hard work on the part of faculty, staff, and students.
The Challenges of Integrating Eastern and Western Medicine
My Masters thesis was titled, "The Challenges of Integrating Eastern and Western Medicine," which highlighted several reasons why it is hard for these two worlds to mix.
Leg-Length Inequality and Pelvic Fixation: A New Approach to the Negative Derifield (Part 2)
As we noted in our previous article, with a positive Derifield (+D), the doctor observes the reactive (shorter) leg in the prone position that becomes longer or "crosses over" in the flexed position.
Marijuana, Apathy and Chinese Medicine, Part 1
This article was written in response to the unheeded acceptance of marijuana as a harmless substance that potentially does good when used for the medical relief of pain.
June, 2012, Vol. 12, Issue 06
Achilles Tendon and Foot Pain Caused by Tibialis Posterior
By David Kent, LMT, NCTMB
When patients report subjective complaints of posterior leg (calf) and sole (bottom) of foot pain when walking or running, especially on uneven surfaces, the symptoms are typically not isolated to one muscle.The tibialis posterior muscle is often involved and is the deepest muscle in the posterior compartment of the leg. Let's review the anatomy, myofascial trigger point location, pain referral patterns and a treatment technique for the tibialis posterior muscle.
The region between the knee and ankle is called the leg, it is divided into three compartments: anterior (front), lateral (side) and posterior (back). The posterior (flexor) compartment is the largest and contains seven muscles, which can be divided into a superficial and deep group. (Photo 1)
The superficial group includes gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris. The deep group includes tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and popliteus. (Photo 1)
The tibialis posterior muscle is positioned between the tibia and fibula. (Photo 2) Medially, it is covered by the flexor digitorum longus muscle and laterally by the flexor hallucis longus muscle. (Photo 3) These muscles influence the ankle and foot joints. The popliteus is also in the deep compartment, however, it affects the knee joint.
The tibialis posterior muscle attaches proximally to the tibia, fibula, adjoining interosseous membrane and the intermuscular septum. (Photo 2)
Distally, the tendon runs behind the medial malleolus to attach on the navicular, the calcaneus, the cuboid, three cuniform and the second through fourth metatarsals. (Photo 2)
When the tibialis posterior contracts, it produces inversion of the foot, with plantar flexion of the ankle joint. If the muscle is weak it contributes to pronation of the foot and a loss of support of the longitudinal arch. (Read Practice Building with Postural Analysis MT, January 2012.)
The fibularis (peronial) longus and bervis are main antagonists to the inversion action of the tibialis posterior.
Patients with myofascial trigger points in the tibialis posterior muscle report calf and foot pain when walking or running. The pain is more intense when walking of running on uneven brick or cobblestone surfaces, as the muscle contracts while producing inversion of the foot and plantar flexion of the ankle joint.
Active myofascial trigger points can typically be located in the proximal third of the tibialis posterior muscle. The referred pain is most intense in the achilles tendon and the sole of the foot. A spillover pain, felt to a lesser degree, is experience in the calf. (Photo 4)
Visual aids such as anatomical models and charts are great patient education tools to demonstrate the muscle layers, trigger point location and pain referral patterns prior to treatment. Show patients how your charts work and what they may expect if you palpate a trigger point. For example, in Photo 5, "X" indicates the common location of trigger points within the muscle. Solid red areas indicate an essential pain zone or area of pain experienced by every patient that had that trigger point activated during research studies. The red dots indicate spillover pain zones. These are areas of pain experienced by some, but not all, patients outside of the essential pain zones. (Read Getting In Our Patients Head MT, January 2011)
The patient's subjective complaints and your objective findings will determine the appropriate treatment techniques to integrate. Care for yourself while providing quality care for your patients by using proper body mechanics and adjusting the treatment table height accordingly. One goal during treatment is to reduce pain, not create it. Patient comfort should always be considered. Pillows and bolstering systems allow for a wide range of positioning options, with sections that adjust to various angles. Continually confirm with the patient during treatment that treatment pressure is comfortable. (Read Learning to Engage All The Senses MT, March 2012)
Whenever deep muscles require therapy the superficial tissues must first be properly released prior to treating deep structures. There are numerous techniques for treating the tibialis posterior muscle, this article will touch on only one.
Outline of the treatment technique:
Step 1 – First, shorten the superficial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles by positioning the patient prone with support like a bolster under the ankle to create knee flexion and plantar flexion of the foot. Apply oil or cream to posterior leg. (Photo 6)
Step 2 – Superficial Gliding. Start on the medial side of the calf. Using distal to proximal movements, from the ankle to the knee, treat in thumb width strips starting on the medial side and moving to the lateral side gliding over the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. (Photo 6)
Step 3 – Pincer Compression. Isolate and examine the bellies of the gastrocnemius and soleus utilizing pincer compression. Note, if your hands are slipping on the skin during this step, due to oil of cream on the skin, treat through a tissue or linen. (Photo 7)
Step 4 – Tibia and Fibula attachments. Glide distal to proximal on the posterior aspect of the fibula, then repeat the same on the posterior aspect of the fibula. Caution to avoid the common fibular nerve located between the skin and the fibular head. (Photo 8)
Step 6 – Release distal attachments in the foot. (Photo 10)
Symptoms of pain when walking or running in the calf and foot are typically not isolated to one muscle. The tibialis posterior is the deepest leg muscle and often involved. I hope this article provides you with empowering knowledge that can be applied immediately to your patients.
Click here for more information about David Kent, LMT, NCTMB.
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