resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
Know Your Research: Tips for Evaluating Literature Reviews
Clinical and experimental studies are not the only types of published research we might encounter as we look for evidence to inform our practices. One of the most useful types is the literature review, which summarizes a group of studies.
What are the Meridians?
The meridian and collateral system (jing luo, hereinafter referred to as "Meridians") is comprised of the main meridian channels (jing mai) and the collateral vessels (luo mai). Jing takes from meaning of the Chinese word pathway (also jing) and are the main branches of the system.
Analyzing Acupuncture Case Studies
Confirm the answer quickly by the elimination method. Take this case study as an example. After two treatments for back pain, a patient presents for a third session complaining of rapid breathing and wheezing that is made worse during cold weather.
MPA Media Wins More Publishing Awards
The American Society of Business Publication Editors (ASBPE) has honored Dynamic Chiropractic with a national award and two regional awards for editorial excellence, and sister publication DC Practice Insights with two regional awards for graphic design excellence.
Less Time Than Required
Q: When is it appropriate to use a modifier -52? Can I use it for a timed service when I do less than the time required by the code?
Chiropractic in the Eyes of the Public: 2nd Gallup-Palmer Poll
The second Gallup / Palmer College poll has been completed, yielding significant additional data regarding Americans' experiences with and perceptions of chiropractic care.
Guidelines for the Use of Modifier -52
Modifier -52 identifies that a service or procedure has been partially reduced or eliminated at the physician's discretion. This is to indicate the basic service described by the procedure code has been performed, but not all aspects of the service have been performed.
Are Probiotics Doing More Harm Than Good?
Considerable controversy exists concerning the efficacy of probiotic supplements. Very few human studies show any real positive impact on the microbiome or health. The "promise" of probiotics is based on the few animal studies that suggest a positive effect.
Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes (Part 1)
More than 45 million children ages 6-18 participate in some form of organized athletics, and 75 percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports.
Let's Talk About Biceps Injuries at the Elbow
While most muscles cross over only one joint, the biceps crosses two joints: the elbow and the shoulder. Injuries to the lower biceps cause considerable elbow pain. Here's how to assess and treat an injury to this area conservatively.
Illuminating the Hidden, Freeing the Source
Amongst the Primary Channels, from a classical point of view, the small intestine is perhaps the most important channel to understand. It is one of the least used acupuncture channels in modern acupuncture, yet it within it can be found a wealth of theories from the Ling Shu.
A Study of Relationships
Sa-Ahm's five element acupuncture method is known to be one of the most effective acupuncture techniques in Korea because it gives an instant response at the time of treatment and has a high success rate in resolving chronic problems.
International Congress on Integrative Medicine
"Bridging Research, Clinical Care, Education and Policy" was the theme for the International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health 2016 (ICIMH).
What's New in the NCCIH Strategic Plan
The NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) released its draft strategic plan 2016-2021 for public comment in early spring of 2016.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) lists more than 80 common autoimmune diseases including asthma, Crohn's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus.
Time to Fight for Your Medicare Right
I have heard a lot of noise and a lot of debate about what is going on with Medicare. As an ACA delegate, I often get asked: 'What is the ACA even doing?'
Adventures with the Pericardium
My previous column on the San Jiao deserves equal time for SJ's loving partner, the pericardium. I nicknamed SJ the travel meridian – but pericardium can also play a crucial role in air travel.
Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Taiwan Hospitals
This spring, a team of Western medical doctors and TCM practitioners from Cleveland Clinic traveled to Taiwan to visit Kaiser Pharmaceutical Co. (KP), and China Medical University (CMU), Taiwan's leading integrative medicine hospital.
Lessons from Functional Neurology
Chiropractic neurology, also known as clinical neuroscience or functional neurology, is moving the chiropractic profession forward by leaps and bounds.
The Professional and Practice Benefits of Political Activism
Welcome to election season, a vital part of our American culture. Every two years, without fail, we are bombarded with TV, print materials and phone messages seeking our vote.
Work Stress and Musculoskeletal Health: Do Your Patients Get the Connection?
Most people underestimate the impact their job has on their health, especially if that job isn't particularly physically demanding. Big mistake.
Don't Ignore the Lower Half of the Pelvis (Part 1)
When your patient complains of lower back or pelvic pain, but your usual treatments are not getting the job done, what do you examine and treat? You may be missing important structures in the lower half of the pelvis.
March, 2012, Vol. 12, Issue 03
The Relationship Between Doctors and Massage: A Look at the Past
By Judi Calvert, LMP
In 1888, a practicing physician in Carlsbad, Bohemia, by the name of Emil Kleen MD, PhD, wrote a book called the Handbook of Massage in his Swedish language. Dr. Kleen's work was translated into several languages.German writers of that time also began to write books on the subject of massage. Kleen wrote his book as an introduction for younger students of medicine to the indications and contraindications of massage. It was Kleen's "desire to combat the oft-expressed inclination to advance massage to the dignity of an exclusive method of treatment."
Kleen wanted the students and readers of his book to, "look upon massage as I do myself, viz., as a remedial measure, among many, that is capable of being frequently employed, but which is seldom to be resorted to by itself alone."
There were not many illustrations in Kleen's first book because he did not think they would be necessary, considering there were centers teaching massage at the time. His second book, published in 1921, was essentially the same text with some revisions and additions, along with several illustrations. Both books have wonderful chapters titled, "Massage to Diseases of the Joints and Eyes," "Massage for Frostbite," and "Contraindications to Massage."
Kleen's books were intended to support the continuation of manual therapy work that was so successful during World War I. The physicians of Europe, as well as Kleen, believed that manual therapies were very important as a part of their medical practice. Thus, he wrote about the benefits of massage to bring awareness to other doctors around the world. Kleen was a critic of lay practitioners. He and most physicians at the time believed massage was only valuable when performed by physicians and under their direction.
In Kleen's first book, he distinguishes between massage and gymnastics--a recurrent theme in his writings that drew criticism. His distinction was important when it came to applying either massage or gymnastics to the specific medical conditions. Kleen's description of massage was, "a mechanical action which if performed on the soft tissues, for a therapeutical purpose, by means of certain manipulations, namely, stroking, rubbing, kneading and striking." His definition of gymnastics was, "it involves the exercise of the organs of motion." Both forms of treatment he felt had, "many points in common." Kleen felt that most of the writers of the time did not distinguish the difference between these treatments. For the sake of being consistent, he thought it best to, "speak of the manipulations of massage, and of the movements of gymnastics." He felt that both practices were "branches of mechano-therapy, along with orthopaedeics." The conception of massage, in its entirety, embraces not only the manipulation of massage, but also their modes of action."
Here's a question for readers: Do you think that mechano-therapy came first or massage? Dr. Kleen felt that, based on his readings of history that, "on the whole, gymnastics have emerged within the domain of science earlier than massage, since the scientific requirements of the first are much more easily fulfilled than those of the latter." To prove his point, Kleen includes a time line in his book and wrote about several countries that pioneered mechano-therapy and massage.
Of those renowned physicians mentioned in Kleen's book were the Greeks. Kleen, "acclaims Asclepiaedes as the Father of mechano-therapy, for the invention of several devices designed to produce fluid movement through swinging, vibration or violent motion." Asclepiades was a Greek physician who practiced and taught medicine from 124-40 BC. Asclepiades also used massage extensively in his practice.
In the 1860's, Kleen felt that it was Dr. Mezger, of Amsterdam, who achieved fame in spreading the "impulse" of massage. Mezger convinced the public how important massage was and through his teachings to German and Scandinavian students, he had a great influence on the standing of massage by introducing it to the medical world.
The Technique of Massage
Kleen felt that "massage was an easy art, requiring less practice and skill than many other mechanical procedures which recur frequently in our calling, in which we all demand a certain amount of dexterity of ourselves--- as, for instance, in using the laryngoscope or the catheter, the performance of ordinary surgical operations, etc. To be a good masseur one must study anatomy and physiology and pathology." This was the difference that Dr. Kleen felt between a trained or untrained masseur.
The masseur had to have, "normal upper extremities, that are not too weak — the hands especially should not be too lean or small — and some aptness for mechanical work." So I guess people whose hands were either too big or too small were simply out of luck and had to find another career. Kleen believed that students of massage should spend time with an "expert teacher" to learn the correct techniques. When the student gets out on his own, Dr. Kleen felt that each student should, "work out his own technique which soon becomes as characteristic as his own handwriting."
Developing the skills required for accurate palpation tools is the hardest thing to achieve for the masseur, both then and now. This may have been where the phrase, "practice, practice and more practice" came about. Dr. Kleen felt that massage was usually best when given with the hand. He did mention that other masseurs used a variety of tools along with massage done by the hand. The hand techniques performed by the masseur were classified by the Mezger's School using the French terms "Effleurage," "Frictions," "Petrissage," and "Tapotement." I laughed my head off when I read that the Mezger School taught their students to use hog lard as a medium on the skin of massage patients.
Some things never change over time with beginners in massage. Using too much force is something all of them have in common. Dr. Kleen felt that, "on the other hand, professional masseurs go to the other extreme." Kleen felt that in some cases greater force with the hands to the tissues was necessary and if it caused, "spots to show up," the effect was minor and disappears quickly. Dr. Kleen wanted to correct statements some writers made that masseurs should, "not be too energetic as to cause sugillations or discolorations of the skin and that every spot of that sort is a reproach to the masseur."
What was great to learn from Dr. Kleen's book was that masseurs were using hypnotism and hypnotic suggestions with their patients along with massage. They were having wonderful results, but Dr. Kleen wanted to wait a few years before he would discuss it further. I have used hypnotism in my massage practice for a short period of time and also had good results. It was a research project that I did on clients who had been in a bad car accident. Dr. Kleen's book is a wonderful reference from the past, full of valuable information that is relevant today about massage, shared by doctors who had the courage to step out of their box to study, learn and teach massage along with the medicine that they practices in the late 1800's.
Click here for previous articles by Judi Calvert, LMP.
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