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Spotlight on Acupuncture Research at IRCIMH
Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine were well-represented at the International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health (IRCIMH)- 2014 which took place in Miami from May 13–16.
Immunizations by Colorado DCs: Really?
You probably didn't hear about it, but back on Nov. 21, 2013, the Board of Directors of the Colorado Chiropractic Association (CCA) adopted "immunization authority" for Colorado DCs as its No. 2 legislative goal.
The Science of Stretching
In 1986, Rob DeCastella set a course record by running the Boston Marathon in 2:07:51, just 39 seconds off the world record.
Knee Pain From the Kinetic Chain
As practitioners of manual medicine, chiropractors often treat patients suffering from knee pain.
Hazards in the Environment Making Your Patients Sick
Working both separately and together, Western and Chinese medicine have many successes in the treatment of the myriad diseases that afflict human beings in modern times.
Fibromyalgia: Put the Pain in Its Place
While some fibromyalgia patients respond favorably to regular chiropractic care, others experience minimal relief. Unfortunately, many of these patients must rely on pharmacological management to relieve their constant pain.
Why You Should Include the Single-Leg Stance Test in Every Patient Assessment
The single-leg stance (SLS) test, also known as the single-limb stance test, unipedal stance test or one-legged stance / balance test, is often used in the geriatric population to assess static postural and balance control.
Physical Exam 101: The Hands
I am sure you are familiar with the old adage: "When the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer, everything starts to look like a nail."
Are You a Bad Chiropractic Patient?
My father was a great DC. In fact, as you might expect, he was the doctor of chiropractic I measured all other doctors against. Sadly, he died at age 61 when I was in my early 30s.
Looking For Answers In Many Places
I am sure we have all heard the old adage: "When the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer, everything starts to look like a nail."
Medical Qigong for the Heart: Part II
Chinese Medicine is rich in commentary regarding the emotions and how they affect our qi.
Curbing Label Overwhelm
For the average consumer, reading a food package can be overwhelming: natural, organic, non-GMO, gluten free, free range ... you get the picture.
Deciphering The New CMS 1500 Claim Form
Q: I am confused on using the new 1500 form, particularly Block 14 and Block 15. What is required and how do I properly fill these out? And do I actually have to use this new form or may I continue using the old version?
The Acupuncture Success Express
Time is passing very quickly these days. We are atoms half the way through the year of the horse. You could call it "horse racing season" for this profession. Perhaps it is time for reinvention during this time.
Vaccines and Chiropractic: Evidence-Based Medicine or Medical Dogma?
Right or wrong, the chiropractic profession has historically been against vaccinations. However, a growing trend within the profession is seeking to reverse this position.
Coding for the Subluxation: ICD-9 vs. ICD-10
When I attended chiropractic school, I was taught that chiropractors approach health care differently than the traditional medical establishment.
Best Practices for Website Success
If one asked 10 years ago whether a website was relevant I was the first to suggest no. Yet as the world moves increasingly towards electronic information there is a dire need to have a website for your practice. Your website is actually your electronic calling card.
Inside Liver Failure, Cirrhosis and Cancer
The Liver belongs to Wood in Five Element Theory and is in charge of Dispersing and Expanding which means all the processing and detoxifying of harmful substances such as medications and chemicals require the efforts of the Liver.
Healing With Hope
Ella is a Gulf War veteran and a survivor of military sexual trauma. Like hundreds of veterans, Ella was on 11 different medications for depression, anxiety, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic pain.
Remembering Clarence Gonstead and 50 Years of the Gonstead Clinic
Dr. Clarence Selmer Gonstead (1898-1978) took chiropractic practice from back-alley bone setting to an understandable biomechanical science. His life was dedicated to clinical competency.
By the Numbers: 3 Common Financial Mistakes With Major Consequences
Warren Buffett is on record for sharing the hidden art of becoming wealthy and making it simple enough for anyone to grasp.
January, 2012, Vol. 12, Issue 01
Rubefacient Essential Oils for Pain Relief
By Shellie Enteen, RA, BA, LMBT
According to Mosby's Medical Dictionary, the word 'rubefacient' derives from two Latin words: ruber, red, facere, to make, and it is defined as:
This redness is caused by dilation of capillaries and increased blood circulation; a property that is useful for many client issues where pain or stiffness is present. An abstract published in Medline in 1982 reports the effects of a rubefacient commonly used by massage therapists and containing essential oils of cassia and clove called Tiger Balm. They tested application on rabbit skin to discover the effect of long term use and found that, "Tiger Balm Red (which contained 5% cassia oil plus 5% clove oil) caused irritation consisting of erythema, eschar formation and some oedema, to which a degree of tolerance developed. This irritation resulted in hyperkeratosis and sometimes inflammatory changes but no major damage to the skin. Tiger Balm White (no cassia oil and 2% clove oil) was better tolerated and produced less irritation and histological change than either Tiger Balm Red or a mixture of commercial waxes similar in composition to the wax base for Tiger Balm Red. None of the treatments produced any signs of systemic toxicity."
From this study, we learn two important things: rubefacients are well tolerated and don't cause permanent damage, and cassia oil is much more irritating than clove. Trained aromatherapists know this and also how important it is to dilute the rubefacient essential oils by putting them into carrier oil (such as almond, sesame, or my favorite, fractionated coconut) before use on the skin. And cassia (cinnamomum cassia) is listed in Sylla Sheppard Hanger's Aromatherapy Practitioner Manual, Vol. I as being a "DERMAL IRRITANT, avoid use on sensitive or damaged skin; use very highly diluted if at all."
There are many other essential oils that deliver the rubefacient property and which are more commonly used in massage application. They increase circulation in the skin and muscle tissue, creating relief from pain through an anti-inflammatory effect as well as helping to clear the tissue of byproducts of prior inflammation. They provide a comforting feeling of warmth as they accelerate metabolism in the area. Rubefacient essential oils are used to treat conditions such as rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, back pain, bunion, bursitis (application to area without massage or manipulation), muscle cramps, sciatica, strain and sprain. Frequently, they are paired with essential oils that increase detoxification, such as juniper berry (Juniperus communis), carrot seed (Daucus carota) and lemon* (Citrus limon). This is especially helpful for joint pain and arthritis. They can also be blended with more relaxing anti-inflammatory analgesics like lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula spica) or German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) where stress and tension is known to be a major cause of muscle pain.
The commonly used rubefacient essential oils are:
You can read profiles on some of those essences in an article on the stimulating essential oils published in the November 2011 issue of Massage Today. Nutmeg is less commonly used and has a reputation for having psychotropic properties. Studies have shown that this is true for whole nutmeg, while the essential oil is weak in the myristicin and elimicin content that metabolize to produce hallucinogenic effects. It is unlikely that non-oral use of the essential oil of nutmeg (the only safe method for delivering this and most essential oils) would have any such affects at all.
An example of a blend for chronic arthritis might be (in 1 oz of carrier oil):
An example of a blend for neck and/or back pain due to tension (in 1 oz of carrier oil):
Blending tip: Essential oils of higher aroma intensity require fewer drops.
*Expressed lemon essential oil is phototoxic. Avoid exposure to sunlight for 18 hours after use, or use distilled lemon essential oil.
Shellie Enteen resides in Greer, S.C., and can be reached at . Shellie will be teaching a three day aromatherapy CEU workshop at the AMTA South Carolina Chapter Spring Mini-Convention in Charleston, SC, March 16-18th, 2012. More more information, visit www.amta-sc.org. For a brief biography, a printable version of this article and a link to previous articles, visit Shellie's columnist page at www.massagetoday.com/columnists/enteen.
Click here for more information about Shellie Enteen, RA, BA, LMBT.
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