resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
The Need for Standards
ISO-TC-249: You may look at these letters and numbers and wonder what they are and what they might mean. They turn into: International Standards Organization- Technical Committee – 249. There is a global organization called The International Organization for Standardization.
Finger (Pad) Pointing: Repetitive-Use Injury Waiting to Happen
"My wrist and hand hurt. I spend all day working on computers and then I come home and spend more time on a computer, usually playing video games."
Transforming Las Vegas
On a warm spring day in Las Vegas, Sonia Kim, clinic front desk staff, is busy preparing for a full day of intern shifts at Wongu Health Center. She greets patients, makes sure documents are properly signed, and lets the interns know that their patients have arrived.
One of the most common trends to see in clinical medical practice and public health is the cycles of health "buzzwords." These come and go depending upon the current cultural zeitgeist. One year, "parasites" are causing all the issues, and the next year it's "candida."
Living Well: Lessons From Our Oldest Old
Aging is a significant public health problem, important to chiropractors in practice and important to DCs who teach students training to become chiropractors.
Billing Timed Services
Q: I do not always use physical medicine services but in my state I do have a scope of practice that allows me to provide many of these services. I am trying to understand what "direct one-on-one patient contact" means in relation to physical medicine services.
News in Brief
NYCC Aggregates Degree Programs in New School; Palmer Chancellor Receives Education Award From ICA; Oklahaven Announces "Have a Heart" Winners.
Keeping Malpractice Allegations at Bay
It has been suggested that in the litigious environment in which we live, the practice of chiropractic should be defensive and practitioners should constantly be watching their backs. An element of defensive practice is a good idea.
With Low-Back Pain, Sometimes Little Things Matter
Typical treatments for low back pain involve large muscles like the quadratus lumborum, iliopsoas, and piriformis. However, there are situations when a very small muscle, the multifidus, can play a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of low back muscular or spinal injury.
Parker University Embraces New Era
Change is in the air at Parker University, which recently announced the selection of both a new president and a new consultant for its seminar program.
Discovery: Finding Insights and Each Other in Different Disciplines
Recently I've been thinking about all sorts of things which are hidden from our daily direct experience. That general category is what links nearly everything that catches my attention and then demands some kind of investigation.
Sleepless nights, anxiety, mood swings, euphoric energy bursts, obsessive thinking, and a strange feeling in his chest. That is what Matt was experiencing when he first entered my practice. Rather than being concerned, he was loving every minute of it.
How to Reach Your World With the Chiropractic Message
My latest effort to share chiropractic occurred in mid-May while I was sitting at an introductory parent information night for high schoolers. The IT instructor informed us that each student would be receiving a computer for all their studies.
Building Bridges with Discipline
As practitioners of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, our role is to educate patients and medical practitioners about the various safety aspects of our medicine. Medical doctors that embrace Chinese medicine want to collaborate and include Chinese herbal medicine in more aspects of clinical care to support their patients.
Constructing Our Reality, Part 2
My last article discussed perception and its relationship to the primary channels. Before we get to the channels most commonly used to treat sensory disturbances, the small intestine and triple heater, we should first talk about the bladder channel.
Billing One-on-One, Direct Patient Contact
This is often misunderstood and leads to trepidation when documenting and subsequently billing timed services.
Understanding Levels of Evidence
The concept of levels of evidence is a cornerstone of research literacy and a great starting point for understanding basic principles of how research works.
A Whole-Body Approach to Chronic Tension Headaches
Nearly every day in our practices, we see patients with chronic headaches that have not responded to traditional treatment. They present in our offices with a feeble hope that "maybe" a chiropractor can help.
Prostate Cancer Risk
A large study published in January 2016 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that men who are vegans had a 35% lower risk of developing prostate cancer compared to non-vegan men. The study followed more than 26,346 men who are part of the Adventists Health Study-2.
Holistic Skin Care and Modern Technology
Anti-aging is a concept that we hear in reference to skin rejuvenation and growing older on a daily basis. Aging begins as soon as we are born; therefore "pro-aging" is embracing all stages of life gracefully, with vitality, wisdom, joy, and gratitude as the goal.
A Different Way of Looking at It
The way you and your chiropractic colleagues access information has changed over the past decade. According to a recent survey conducted by Dynamic Chiropractic, almost half (48 percent) of DCs read online articles on their personal computer or laptop daily.
Hip Flexor Contractures & LBP in Above-the-Knee Amputations
Patients with above-the-knee amputations (AK or AKA) are particularly prone to developing hip flexor contractures. Not to be confused with muscle tightness, contractures are a permanent shortening of tissues which cause deformity or distortion.
Low Fat vs. Low Carb & the Power of Protein
A science-based website recently posted a nice summary of 23 randomized, controlled trials from peer-reviewed journals pitting low-carb diets against low-fat diets.
Distal Style Treatment of Neurogenic Pain
Treat locally or distally? This question has frequented my thoughts for the treatment of pain throughout my acupuncture career. Each style has strengths and weaknesses, thus the versatile practitioner would do well to forgo dogmatic adherence to any one style in deference to the needs of the individual patient.
Streamline Your Front Desk
Your front office can be your greatest source of efficiency or it can be a constant bottleneck. Increasing the productivity of this area, while not sacrificing the quality of patient interaction, can be a little tricky. However, with some focused effort and intention, your front desk can keep your practice running smoothly.
December, 2011, Vol. 11, Issue 12
Nursing and Massage from Our Past
By Judi Calvert, LMP
I believe that nurses are angels sent down from God's hospital. They do so much for humanity. I wanted to go back in time to find out some history of nursing, especially nurses trained to perform massage i sanitariums and hospitals.What was it like for them in the late 1880s?
Sanitariums, such as the Lindlahr Sanitarium in Chicago, wanted nurses for training in "natural therapeutic methods." This included training in massage, Swedish gymnastics, hydrotherapy, electrotherapy and nutrition. The sanitarium placed many nursing ads in major magazines in the early 1900s. The applicants had to be 19-years-old and have one year of high school. They would make $7 per day.
In 1887, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg of the Battle Creek Sanitarium trained hundreds of men and women to become nurses. He trained them to perform massage, hydrotherapy, Swedish movements and calisthenics. Kellogg had courses of instruction in general nursing, surgical nursing and monthly nursing in a two-year program. He had 1,000 patients and the equipment from hospital wards and treatment rooms. Kellogg "assured constant, congenial employment at good salaries, with many personal expenses saved."
Many schools in the U.S. had home study courses to become a nurse. The Chicago School Of Nursing was organized in 1899. I have their 1948 nursing course book. Lesson 35 is a chapter on massage and shows pictures of the movements of effleurage, petrissage, friction and tapotement employed in massage. The first page says, "massage can be of great value to you throughout your career as a practical nurse and you will use it in all its many forms, from the simple daily body rubs to the complete general massage described in this lesson."
I found a very small booklet dated 1924, from the Mercy Hospital Training School for Nurses from Johnstown, Penn., describing the program for nurses. During the months of probation, the students were "boarded and lodged at the expense of the school, but received no compensation." If they proved themselves, then they would be accepted as student nurses and would remain at the school for three years. The students would rise at 6 a.m. and return to their rooms at 10 p.m. and they weren't allowed to use the telephone while on duty. They couldn't wear jewelry when in uniform and couldn't wear shoes without rubber heels. Hot water bottles could never be left in the patient's bed or the student nurses might face dismissal.
We can find some history about how hospitals began to adopt classes in massage from the book, Massage for Nurses and Beginners by Maude Rawlins. She tells us that around 1895, "hospitals here and there in the United States conceived the idea that a few lessons in massage might be of value to nurses; so massage was adopted and six hours were devoted to the subject." More hospitals added the course to their curriculum and over time, the hours increased until the end of the war. The New York State Nursing Department then made it "a compulsory, instead of a selective, course and demanded sixteen hours of elemental training in practical massage."
There have been many books written about the history of nursing and massage. Let us pay tribute to one of the pioneers: Nellie Elizabeth Macafee, R.N. She wrote a book in 1920 called Massage: An Elementary Text-Book for Nurses. This book contained only 42 pages, but gave us a peek into the past of massage history. She did not intend this book as "a textbook for anyone expecting to make massage a profession." It was the result of years of experience, teaching, lectures and practical work with nurses in Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh League of Nursing Education had a curriculum of "sufficient knowledge of massage to meet the requirements of the Pennsylvania State Board of Registration for Nurses."
Of course, Macafee mentions Peter Henry Ling and "The Ling System." She then pays tribute to mechano-therapy as taught in America and adopted by Dr. Weir Mitchell to be used in the treatment of "nervous diseases by the rest cure." In fact, there were many different methods of mechano-therapy taught by the 1920's and she recommended that her readers learn many of them so the operator can judge which one of the movements could be used for each particular treatment. The few lessons that she wrote in her book were mainly to help nurses "treat nervous diseases" that required nurses to give "either a local or light general massage." Macafee felt that nurses could not give a heavy treatment every day to their patient in addition to all of their other duties. She writes that would be "beyond the strength of most nurses." From this, we learn that nurses gave both massage and used Swedish movements in their treatment plans. Macafee taught that "massage is a systematic manipulation of the human body according to diagnosis." Today, many states have laws forbidding massage therapists from diagnosing clients. But we can assume that back in her day the doctors did.
If a person wanted to give a successful massage, Macafee believed that they "must have a thorough knowledge of anatomy, of the effect of disease on the different parts of the body, the technique of massage and such knowledge of the physiological effect of the different movements of massage that she will know which to use to restore the parts of the health most quickly." The idea was to give the patient "a feeling of tiredness without fatigue or exhaustion, a sense of comfort and desire for rest and sleep." Therapists reading this article today could learn from Macafee's many years of experience. She believed and taught that "massage is not a cure for all diseases." But it was used as "one of the remedial agents with other treatments for nervous or chronic diseases, in orthopedic work and to take the place of exercise."
Even though nurses used mechanical appliances on the bodies of patients, Macafee wrote that nurses who used their hands instead could give a "sympathetic touch" and gain better results. She definitely was a very smart nurse, and knew the need and value of touch. Through her years of experience, she taught that massage was divided into seven general movements, two were light and five were heavy and deep, and she also sub divided them. If you gave a firm, deep pressure over a motor point, then it would have a stimulating effect. If you gave a continued pressure, it would "paralyze a nerve trunk as to have a sedative effect." Macafee taught that if the nurse used "heavy effleurage" with her palms, she should go in a centripetal direction. When working with sprains, one should "always use both hands as it gives a greater action upon the circulation and economizes the work."
The massage strokes that therapists use today were the same ones that Macafee taught: effleurage, friction, kneading or petrissage, percussion and vibration. She did have a subdivision of kneading called fulling. It was given with the thumbs and the ends of the fingers of both hands used alternately. Nurses could never give a general treatment of massage to a patient without the order from the physician in charge of the patient's case. She could perform the massage movements when giving an alcohol rub. Nurses would give a forty-five minute treatment while their patient was in bed. Treatments could be shorter depending on the disease, the size and the condition of the patient. Bending over a bed to give a massage treatment must have been hard on the nurse's bodies over time. Did I mention that nurses are angels?
The massage lubricants that the nurses used on the patient were "solidified albolene, coconut oil or a rather thin cold cream." The nurses were taught about contra-indications for massage. One of those was that massage was contra-indicated in pregnancy. They did do massage sometimes in mild cases of insanity and extreme nervous conditions. One of the most useful massage treatments that they gave was a head treatment in order to sedate the patient at night. Now wouldn't that be great today for patients, instead of drugs that the doctor orders. Drug companies would not want to hear that now, would they?
The final great massage treatment that the nurse would give: a hot iron. They would use a hot iron, cover the back with an old blanket and iron the entire back. They had to be careful and not scorch the flannel. The trick was to keep the iron moving constantly without any pressure and stop when the skin became red. All in a day's work for a nurse back in the 1920's. So, I hope you have enjoyed stepping back in time in our massage history for nurses.
Click here for previous articles by Judi Calvert, LMP.
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