resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
What's New in Phytonutrition: Mangifera Indica, "The King of Fruits"
One hundred percent pure Indian green mango fruit (mangifera indica), harvested at a special degree of ripeness for efficacy and taste, can now be concentrated as a phytonutrient nutraceutical powder.
Treating Hip & Groin Pain With Abdominal Release of Upper Lumbar Nerve Impingements
Have you encountered patients with groin and hip pain you can't seem to solve? You know it's not a worn-out hip; you suspect the pain is somehow connected to the spine. But somehow, you just can't help them break through.
A Long-Overdue Win for Oregon Medicaid Patients - and the Implications for Other States
Beginning July 1, 2016, Oregon Medicaid patients with spinal pain (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, pelvic) who are determined to be low risk based on a biopsychosocial assessment tool (STarT Back – Keele University) can receive four chiropractic visits per episode.
Increasing the Value of Spine Care: CMS Approves New Low Back Pain Registry
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has approved the Spine IQ Low Back Pain Registry as a qualified clinical data registry for the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) in 2016.
Sit or Stand? Analyzing a Mixed Message
I'm more than a bit confused. At my age, that seems to be a rather common occurrence. However, today more than ever, I'm getting a mixed message.
Introducing the Acupuncture Today Digital Edition
In response to the changing habits of our readers, Acupuncture Today will introduce a digital edition of the publication (in addition to our print edition) beginning with the August 2016 issue.
Tai Chi Documentary Premier
First Run Features recently announced the world theatrical premiere of Barry Strugatz's documentary The Professor: Tai Chi's Journey West, which premiered last month at the Laemmle Music Hall in Los Angeles.
Acupuncture Muscle Trigger Point and Oriental Medicine Sports Therapy
It is difficult to ascertain the internal condition of professional basketball player Lebron James during game one of the 2014 NBA finals, in which he developed debilitating muscle cramps that led to his premature removal from the game.
Three Tips to Help You Analyze the Acupuncture Case Studies of the NCCAOM Exam
Confirm the answer quickly by the elimination method. Case study:
After two treatments for back pain, a patient presents for a third
session complaining of rapid breathing and wheezing that is made worse
during cold weather.
The Pertinent Negative
We all have to perform evaluations on patients. Most of us don't like doing it – exams take time, and worse it takes even more time after the evaluation to put together a narrative summary of the findings. Sometimes, this process becomes downright tedious.
What You Say Isn't Always What Patients Hear
A few years ago, my aunt Edna (name changed for the purpose of this story) suffered a stroke. After a short hospital stay, she was transferred to a nursing home for rehabilitation. When she arrived at the nursing home, Edna requested a private room.
Insuring Quality Control in Herb Importation: An Interview with Wilson Lau
Wilson Lau is the vice president of Nuherbs, a Chinese herb importation company based in San Leandro, California. Before joining Nuherbs, he trained as a lawyer specializing in FDA law.
Adventures with the San Jiao
Those of us who have been in practice for several decades relish the way meridians and points reveal new diagnostic clues and new insights. I love to encourage my students to see this as an adventure that goes way beyond the textbooks.
Believe it or not, an estimated one-third of your patients have eaten some form of fast food within 24 hours of their appointment with you.
Acupuncture's Impact on the World
For several years, I have been hearing about the town of Rothenburg, Germany. It seemed just a dot on a map until I arrived. It is the home of the TCM Kongress which began in 1968. It has been held annually for 47 years and it has only missed one year.
Kansas Achieves Licensing Law
Kansas Governor Sam Brownback signed House Bill 2615 into law on Friday, May 13, 2016. HB2615 includes provisions for the licensure of acupuncturists in the state of Kansas.
How to Stay Sane During the Elections: Understanding Through the Lens of Chinese Medicine
In Chinese Medicine philosophy, everything consists of Yin and Yang. The law of polar opposites – one cannot exist without its opposite.
Multivitamin Supplement May Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence
There is a great deal of controversy regarding the value of multiple vitamin supplements in cancer prevention.
AOM Hospital-Based Practice: A Future Reality?
The natural evolution of health care on the planet is integrative health. We may have some challenges ahead, but based on my research, all indicators are pointing in a positive direction. There seems to be an evolving consciousness among our patient population that is "getting it."
An Emerging Partnership Model
Maryland University of Integrative Health (MUIH) has educated integrative health and wellness practitioners for the last 40 years, originally as an acupuncture clinic and school. The institution's transformative, relationship-centered programs integrate traditional wisdom with contemporary science
Beating the Odds: Interview With Para-Powerlifter Adeline Dumapong-Ancheta
Since October 2015, the FICS Foundation, the charitable organization affiliated with the International Federation of Sports Chiropractic (FICS), has been supporting disabled athletes internationally.
Chronic Pain: Become Part of the Solution
I have lectured to more than 7,000 chiropractic physicians over the past five years regarding the chronic pain and opioid epidemic in this country.
July, 2009, Vol. 09, Issue 07
The Risks of Vascular Compression in Soft-Tissue Therapy
By Whitney Lowe, LMT
The muscles in the anterior neck can become hypertonic or develop myofascial trigger points as a result of injury, poor posture, or simple overexertion. Some anterior cervical muscles are superficial and easily accessible, while others are deep and difficult to access with soft-tissue therapies.Because of sensitive neurological and vascular structures in the neck, it is important to reconsider the wisdom of applying treatments to the deep anterior neck muscles.
The two main muscles that lie closest to vascular structures in the anterior neck are the longus colli and longus capitis. Practitioners applying manual treatments to these deep neck flexors could run the risk of causing a serious injury to their client, such as stroke or drop in blood pressure, due to the proximity of the vascular structures.
One of the structures that can be impacted with pressure from soft-tissue treatment to the anterior neck is the carotid sinus, which is located at the division between the internal and external carotid arteries (Figure 1). There is a slight enlargement of the arterial diameter at this juncture where the two arterial branches separate. A group of very important sensory cells, called baroreceptors, are also located in the carotid sinus. The baroreceptors play a primary role in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate.
Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity
In a condition called carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) or carotid sinus syncope, the carotid sinus develops an increased sensitivity to pressure. Syncope is a term meaning loss of consciousness or postural tone caused by a decrease in blood pressure to the brain. Unintentional pressure on the carotid sinus from massage treatment of deep anterior neck muscles could cause adverse effects on blood pressure or heart rate in a person with CSH.
For a person with hypersensitivity in the baroreceptors, even a mild stimulation to the neck can result in bradycardia (reduced heart rate) and a drop in blood pressure.1 However, CSH is not common so clients may not have any problem with pressure applied in this region. For the few that do have this sensitivity, the consequences of pressure on the baroreceptors could be serious. Unfortunately, a massage practitioner would not know if their client had this sensitivity in advance. It is also unlikely that the client would know they have the condition either. Consequently, it is a bit of a statistical gamble to perform massage on the deep anterior neck muscles. There are many practitioners moving away from this type of treatment for safety reasons.
There is another concern with pressure applied in the region of the carotid sinus. In addition to housing the baroreceptors, the shape of the carotid sinus allows this structure to be a repository for arterial plaque buildup. Plaque that has collected on the inner walls of the arteries is a well-known danger. Unintentional pressure applied to the carotid sinus could dislodge some of these plaque concentrations causing them to migrate through the arteries and cause a stroke.
Practitioners may think that by avoiding pressing on tissues with a pulse, they can feel confident that they are not pressing on vascular structures. However due to the multiple layers of soft-tissues, massage can put pressure on other nearby structures that subsequently press on the arteries, so this method is by no means foolproof.
The possibility of adverse affects for anterior neck treatment should lead the practitioner to explore alternatives in soft-tissue treatment for the deep anterior cervical muscles. Reducing hypertonicity can be accomplished by techniques that do not apply direct pressure, such as facilitated or static stretching. Facilitated stretching can be very effective in reducing tightness in the deep neck flexors without putting pressure on the carotid sinus. A position such as that shown in Figure 2 is used for these facilitated stretching methods.
However, the practitioner should be cautious even with stretching. Ironically, there is a risk of a different arterial compression with the neck flexor stretching position shown in Figure 2. The vertebral arteries run through the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae on each side of the neck. They join to form the basilar artery, which then extends into the cranium to supply blood to the brain (Figures 3,4).
When the head is held in hyperextension or rotation (or a combination of both) the vertebral arteries can be compressed, causing a reduction in blood flow to the brain.2 Compression of these arteries is a condition called vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). Symptoms of VBI include vertigo, dizziness, seeing stars, disorientation, ringing in the ears, or general feelings of sensory disturbance. If the practitioner is working in this area or moving the client's head into rotation or hyperextension and they report any of these symptoms, treatment should immediately cease and the client's head should be brought back to neutral.
The majority of problems with VBI result from hyperextension or rotation movements of the head. However, due to the location of the vertebral arteries it is possible that VBI could also occur from common massage techniques in which pressure is applied to the suboccipital region. While it is a rare occurrence, some people could have VBI from techniques such as those depicted in Figure 5, with only the weight of the head applying pressure. Techniques such as those used in CranioSacral Therapy where pressure is on the occiput and not the suboccipital soft tissues will not cause VBI. Problems occur when pressure is applied directly into the suboccipital soft tissues.
There is a way to test for the possibility of vertebral artery compression prior to performing massage techniques. This procedure is called the vertebral artery test and it is considered an accurate means of predicting VBI.3 To perform the test, the practitioner has the client in a seated position and instructs the client to hold their head in extension or extension with rotation (as if looking over the shoulder). If within about 30 seconds, the client reports the beginning of VBI symptoms, the practitioner should consider the client susceptible to arterial compression. Techniques that would put the client in a position that could aggravate the compression should then be avoided.
Massage is one of the safest interventions for treating soft-tissue pain and injury conditions in the cervical region. However, soft-tissue therapy is not benign. As these examples show, there are times when massage or other soft-tissue therapies could have serious detrimental effects and that requires the practitioner to think carefully about appropriate treatments to these sensitive areas.
Click here for more information about Whitney Lowe, LMT.
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