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Meat in the Middle
Have you ever wondered what's the truth about meat? Is it really as bad as many people think?
The Bottom Line ... From a Surgeon Who Knows
Regardless of individual relationships between providers, there continues to be a type of Hatfield-McCoy feud between the philosophies of medicine and chiropractic, particularly when it comes to musculoskeletal ailments.
It Pays to be a Foodie
If there is an inner foodie in you, just waiting to burst out—this article is for you! Do you want to know how I know? I'm that girl. My middle name might as well be "Foodie." I love food! And if my patients are any indication, many of them do as well.
News in Brief
Foundation for Chiropractic Progress Enrolls Second Group Member; Focus on Chiropractic Education at WFC-ACC Conference in Miami; Are You Ready for Another "Have-a-Heart" Campaign?
The Power of Mu Xiang to Treat Irritable Bowel Disease
Bloating and gas pain is something that everyone has had to deal with at one point or another; however, that's usually reserved for holiday dinners and other large gatherings.
Capturing the Essence of Tai Chi
Over the last 12 years, I have been working on one of the few documentaries about Tai Chi. It's called The Professor: Tai Chi's Journey West and it's about Cheng Man-Ching who moved to New York in the 1960s.
Chinese Medicine: The Natural Way to Children's Wellness
As a child, I did not like going to the doctor. For the most part, when I had to go I wasn't feeling good to begin with, and I was heading into a sterile environment to be awkwardly probed by a man in a white coat for a very short, impersonal period of time.
Chronic heightened emotional states create a perfect breeding ground for illness. Through my practice I noted the increasingly obvious relationship between one's mental focus on negative thinking, emotions, resistance to experiencing feelings and disease.
Finders Keepers: The Secret to Relationship-Based Marketing
Becoming a successful practitioner has less to do with what you learned in school, and more to do with your ability to find new patients and keep them!
Giving Chiropractic Some Much-Needed PR
Public relations has not always been the chiropractic profession's strong suit, a shortcoming that has subjected the profession to countless attacks on its legitimacy and seemingly perpetual confusion among the public and the health care world as to the skills and services doctors of chiropractic provide.
Peer Points: Promoting TCM Knowledge
When Elaine Wolf Komarow, LAc, received her first acupuncture treatment in 1989, she said it changed her life. "I felt more aware, calmer, and happier. I was so fascinated by the changes that I began to learn everything I could about the underlying philosophy of Chinese medicine," said Komarow.
Acupuncture Detox as Part of Drug Rehabilitation
In the U.S., more than 2,000 alcohol and drug rehabilitation programs have added ear acupuncture to their practice. The development of the protocol was determined by Lincoln Hospital as it delivered 100 acupuncture treatments daily.
Treating Menopausal Women in Your Practice
I love what I do for a living. It's a great way to trade health for bread. And no topic of health, with the right bedside manner, is taboo.
Drug War Rages in Wisconsin
Based on its actions over the past 15 years (review the sidebar in the app version of this article), controversy and the Wisconsin Chiropractic Association seem to go hand in hand.
Micro-Needle Dermal Roller Use in the Treatment Room
Recently micro-needle dermal rollers have been getting a lot of media attention. As a practitioner who specializes in acupuncture facial rejuvenation, I know that skin needling with a dermal roller (also known as collagen induction therapy), promotes the natural reproduction of collagen and elastin, making the skin feel smoother and tighter.
Introduce Your Patients to Collagen Induction Therapy
Cutaneous (skin) aging generally occurs from either intrinsic or extrinsic processes. Intrinsic aging results from natural skin tissue damage and degeneration.
Following the Thinking of the Classics
I have heard about the "best time of day" to carry out certain examinations or therapies. For example, I remember making a note years ago that early morning is the best time to take someone's pulses.
Five Element Acupuncture Can Enhance Your Practice
For eight years I have been teaching and supervising TCM students at an acupuncture college in Colorado, in Five Element acupuncture.
Implications of Section 2706: The Non-Discrimination Provision Survey
In late April 2014, NCCAOM diplomates received an email survey with the subject line: "End discrimination against acupuncturists" polling CAM practitioners for a Request for Information from the Department of Health and Human Services, released in mid-March.
The McGill Approach to the Lower Back (Part 1)
Stuart McGill, PhD, brings a unique combination of tools to the table. He is a scientist who also functions as a clinician. He describes himself as a medical consultant who is referred challenging patients. He is both evidence based and practical.
Correcting Dysfunctional Movement Patterns – Is Local Treatment Enough?
It is widely believed that mechanical, non-traumatic back pain is largely related to dysfunctional or compensatory movement patterns the body has adopted over time.
Alcohol Consumption Strongly Linked to Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Alcohol intake is one of the primary risk factors for many human cancers, and is strongly associated with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, breast, and notably, the colon and rectum.
Inspire Your Patients to Make Healthy Choices
Have you tried to get your patients to change their eating habits or their diet and couldn't get them to succeed? Were they confused and unsure of what the right thing was to eat? You are not alone!
Treating Chronic Depression with Acupressure
In Traditional Chinese Medicine there already exists a comprehensive theory linking the body and mind.
The Acupuncture Now Foundation: What Our Profession Needs
Although acupuncture is growing in popularity it continues to be underutilized due to misunderstandings about its true potential. Only a fraction of those who could be helped by acupuncture know enough to seek it out.
May, 2008, Vol. 08, Issue 05
The Controversy of Cranial Bone Movement
By Lisa Johnson Zee; guest author for John Upledger, DO, OMM
Editor's note: Dr. Upledger has asked guest author Lisa Johnson Zee to share her thoughts on cranial bone movement in this month's column.
In anatomy and physiology, I learned that cranial bones fuse in early adulthood or childhood.1 Gray's Anatomy supports the theory that the sutures grow together, creating a solid mass of bone called the calvarium. The fused skull functions as a helmet in which volume or pressure changes in blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain tissue cause corresponding pressure changes in other systems to prevent an increase of intracranial pressure.
However, there is a sizable body of literature that documents a small, rhythmic movement of the cranial bones. The bulk of these studies come from the cranial osteopathy medical field. The following is a synopsis of some of these studies.
Tettambel used force transducers to measure movement between the frontal bone and bilateral mastoid processes of the temporal bone in 30 subjects.2 She recorded three rhythms including the cardiac and respiratory rhythms. She hypothesized that the third pulse, which averaged eight cycles per minute, was the craniosacral rhythm.
Frymann studied the rhythmic changes in the circumference of the head using a U-shaped frame with a differential transducer.3 Changes in the diameter of the skull were measured by the displacement of metal rods. This study is unique because it measured movement in live human subjects. Frymann found a pulsating rhythm between six and eight cycles per minute separate from cardiac and respiratory rates. The amount of displacement was measured between 10 and 30 microns.
Another study by Adams, et al., looked at parietal bone mobility in cats.4 These researchers fastened strain gauges to feline parietal bones to measure movement when injections of artificial CSF were given. The bones moved significantly, varying from 17 to 70 microns. External lateral head compression caused a measurable widening of the sagittal suture with an inward rotation of the parietal bones.
Researchers at the University of Michigan College of Osteopathic Medicine have looked at cranial bone mobility in adult primates.5 Michael and Retzlaff used a direct screw attachment on the right parietal bone and measured movement with a pressure transducer. They also measured blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate. The parietal bones moved spontaneously in two distinct rhythms, one corresponding to the respiration rate and a second, slower rate of five to seven cycles per minute.
These four studies indicate cranial bones may show a slow, steady, cyclical movement. A relatively new theory for Western medical science, it represents a dramatic shift. Bringing controversial ideas into the status quo of scientific thought is not easy, but the body of literature supporting cranial movement is growing. Although inconclusive, it deserves to be approached with an open mind.
In CranioSacral Therapy (CST), the rhythm of CSF can be palpated at all parts of the body due to the passive action of fascial connective tissue. The rhythm occurs in two distinct phases: flexion (outward movement) and extension (inward movement). In physical therapy terms, flexion is a decreasing measurement of degrees in the angle of the joint. The sphenobasilar joint is where the posterior sphenoid articulates with a ridge on the occipital bone.
When Dr. William Garner Sutherland, the "father of osteopathy," palpated the movement of these bones, he noticed this joint does indeed flex or reduce angle size on the inferior side. The flexion of this angle is accompanied by subtle outward movement in the body, which Sutherland called flexion. Therefore, in CST, the cranium, along with the rest of the body, is in flexion when it widens and in extension when it narrows.
Anatomy of Suture Closure
To discover more about cranial bone motion, let's examine the nature of cranial sutures. If the sutures remain flexible throughout adulthood, some degree of motion is possible when driven by pressure changes in the craniosacral system. If the tissues fuse and become immobile, rhythmic motion is unlikely.
Several studies have examined the nature of the cranial sutures. Retzlaff, et al.,used light and scanning microscopy to examine tissue samples of adult primate sutures.6 They found connective tissue, blood vessels and nerve fibers present in the sutural space. They described a five-layered pattern of fibers and cells containing collagenous bundles. Tissue was reported to be arranged in a wavy pattern. The researchers hypothesized the purpose of the tissue might be to control the elongation of the collagen bundles. They reported no evidence of fusion in the adult primate sutures.
In a separate study, Upledger and Retzlaff examined the sagittal suture in primate skulls.7 They found not only connective tissue, but also a vascular network and neuronal plexuses and receptors in sutural tissue. In one specimen, they were able to trace a single dendrite through the dural membrane into the brain, terminating in the third ventricle containing CSF. Further study of this neural tract may bring answers to how the homeostatic feedback mechanism in the brain's CSF hydraulic system functions.
In the 1920s, Todd and Lyon published two articles examining a timeline of sutural closure in the male human skull.8 These researchers hypothesized that cranial sutures fuse at some point in the human lifetime. They started with 427 specimens, but rejected 81 due to abnormal suture closure or "delayed union." Furthermore, some of the skulls were termed lapsed union, which meant failure of the suture to close due to a concentration of bone along the edge of the articulatory surface. For reasons unclear, they counted these skulls as fused, which biased results toward earlier suture closure. The data they found is as follows:
The authors concluded that the sutures tend to close along this timeline. However, there is a high degree of variability reported. This study also was conducted some 80 years ago. Standards of protocol in scientific research have changed.
Researchers have studied one suture in-depth using different human specimens. Kokich examined one suture in the facial area - the frontozygomatic suture.9 Of his 61 specimens, he found none demonstrated closure until after age 80, and some weren't completely fused even after age 90. He noted that bony interdigitations formed along the suture with advancing age, but did not affect the patency of sutural movement. Kokich, like Retzlaff and Upledger, found clear evidence of collagen fibers within the suture. He stated that frontozygomatic suture remains a functioning "articulation" until late in life.
A conclusive statement about whether and when sutural fusion occurs cannot be made from existing research.10 Clearly the subject remains open for debate. Having palpated the craniosacral rhythm with my own hands, I believe cranial sutures maintain flexibility that might best be called articulation. This flexibility allows the bones to move passively as they are driven by the craniosacral system.
Click here for previous articles by John Upledger, DO, OMM.
Lisa Johnson Zee is a clinical supervisor and instructor in the Communication Disorders and Sciences Program at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. She is certified in CranioSacral Therapy Techniques through The Upledger Institute. Her other interests include complementary and alternative medicine, traumatic brain injury and bilingual Spanish/English therapy.
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