resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
Helping Patients With Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD), a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects motor function, has a slow onset over time.
ICA Goes on the Vaccine Offensive
Have you watched the vaccination documentary, "Vaxxed: From Cover-Up to Catastrophe," by Andrew Wakefield MD, director, and Del Bigtree, producer? This is the documentary Robert DeNiro was pressured to remove from his Tribeca Film Festival.
Waist Circumference: A Conversation Starter
New estimates suggest more than two-thirds of Americans are either overweight or obese. The medical significance of this statistic is astounding.
The Acupuncture Channel System (Part 2)
The primary channels (main channels) are introduced in chapter 10 of the Ling Shu, these channels are referenced in many chapters throughout the Su Wen and the Ling Shu. The primary channels have become the main channel system used in TCM.
Spiritual Initiation: Opening Your Higher Healing Abilities
People drawn to the field of acupuncture and Oriental Medicine tend to be those who march to the beat of a different drummer.
Latest Cassidy Study on Stroke Risk Published
The latest study to investigate whether a unique association between chiropractic manipulation and risk of cervical artery dissection / stroke exists has yielded similar encouraging findings, with the authors noting "no excess risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care" and no significant risk difference between patients receiving care from a DC or a primary care medical provider.
A Brief History of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Doctoral Programs
A doctorate in acupuncture and Oriental medicine has been a goal of the profession since its beginnings in the late 1970s. At that time, however, the maturity of the educational institutions and the regulatory environment made it a goal with only a distant completion date.
VF Works / DMX Works Epilogue: Almost Two Decades Later, the Lawsuits Continue
An article in the March 8, 1999 edition of Dynamic Chiropractic examined whether then-VF Works / Nu-Best Franchising was selling its franchises illegally to doctors of chiropractic.
House Calls With Dad
My father was a chiropractor and he did house calls. On Wednesday nights, while my mother attended the weekly women's meeting at the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs hall in our small town, dad loaded up the portable adjusting table, fired up the Pontiac and drove off to treat a few patients in their homes. I went with him.
AOM Residency at NUNM
Imagine you're a recent acupuncture graduate, worried about making enough income as you forge your new career and seek more in-depth training in a particular treatment style.
Paperwork Done Wrong, Done Right
I was visiting a doctor's office recently and a member of his staff brought a stack of forms to his private office and laid them on the doctor's desk. She informed him he needed to complete the forms for patients and a few third parties.
4 Things Every DC Should Know About Levels of Care & Prevention
As health practitioners, we help people with their health problems and assist them with health promotion and disease prevention.
Gather & Grow
I recently attended a faculty seminar held by one of the acupuncture schools. There was a facilitator who led us through some very interesting experiences. The attendees were a diverse group with varying opinions.
Correcting Rib Dysfunction: Improve Patients' Pain, Posture and Breathing
As chiropractors, we tend to focus on the spine, and rightly so. Many problems our patients face can be corrected by manipulating the correct spinal level.
Near-Infrared Therapy for Diabetic Neuropathy
The pain experienced by people with diabetes is a symptom of diabetic neuropathy. The impact on quality of life is significant. Pain makes walking difficult, sleep troublesome, and eventually contributes to a decrease in social interaction.
The Large Intestine Official
The large intestine (AKA colon) is the great eliminator, or as J.R. Worsley called it, "The Drainer of the Dregs." Dregs are defined as the remnants of liquid with its sediment left in a container, or the basest, least valuable portion of anything.
News in Brief
The American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM) board members recently met with the Korean Customs Service, which is similar to the FDA, to discuss herbal safety and importation issues.
Reader Beware: Consider the Source
The aftermath of last year's presidential elections brought a running conversation on the role played by "fake news" that was largely presented via social media.
Advancing the "Whole Organ" Spine Model
Historically, the human spine has been organized by body region utilizing specific anatomical landmarks and transition zones.
Getting Unstuck: Healing From Trauma With TCM, Qigong & Movement
We all come into this world vulnerable, with seeds to grow into our strength. Some of us — through a combination of good fortune (i.e., family and culture we are born into, constitutional inheritance, or ability to learn) grow with minimal interruption from traumatic injuries and experiences.
Chiropractic in Texas Is Under Attack
The profession of chiropractic faces an unprecedented challenge in Texas, an attack that is more aggressive, sustained and dangerous than anything previously seen. The medical lobby has launched a coordinated, multi-front assault.
Treating the Lower Pelvis (Pt. 2): Midline Structures and Fascia
My previous article [October 2016 issue] outlined evaluation and treatment of pelvic issues involving the sacrotuberous ligament and the pubic symphysis. Now let's discuss two case studies that illustrate how to address additional problematic areas of the pelvis.
TCM & the Caregiving Population: Treatment Considerations & Our Vital Role
Informal caregiving is increasingly a reality for many Americans who find themselves providing unpaid care for a loved one or a family member with a long-term, terminal, or chronic illness.
April, 2008, Vol. 08, Issue 04
A History of Russian Medical Massage
By Zhenya K. Wine
Russian massage virtually was unknown in the U.S. until the 1980s. Upon my immigration to the U.S. in 1980 and during my occupational therapy internship at Riverside Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, I found out firsthand how little "hands-on" therapy was used by physical medicine in this country. It was a great surprise to me since massage has been a part of almost every treatment Russian patients receive during their inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation..
It took me a few years to realize, however, that Russian massage has been in the forefront of physical rehabilitation due to the extensive research that has been done in Russia and the Soviet countries for more than 130 years. To this day, Russian massage is still a virtual unknown in this country.
The main distinction of Russian massage is its 100 percent use by the Russian medical community since its inception in the late 1700s. Until the 1990s (perestroika), Russian massage was taught in medical and athletic establishments only. The only two ways someone could receive massage in Russia were to have a physician's prescription or to be a member of an athletic team. Massage for pampering and relaxation was only available as a part of a facial cleaning or for the super rich. Although practices and education have changed since that time, massage still is one of the most requested forms of physical rehabilitation in Russia to this day.
Russian massage has a long history, having been used by medicine women along with herbal preparations for centuries. The first recorded form of manual therapy done by the ancient Slovaks (later called Russians) at a bania (sauna) was called "twigging." It was done with branches of birch (Slovaks believed the birch had the best medicinal effects and properties). The leafed birch twigs were gathered in the late spring when the properties of the birch were supposed to be superior. They were then dried and used throughout the year. Russians, after bathing, would go to a very hot steam room (70 percent humidity - not quite as humid as the Turkish sauna), where a specially trained man or woman would hit the body with softened leaf-covered birch twigs and would follow by rubbing the body with the branches. After this part of the therapy was completed, the masseur would pour water - hot first, followed by cold - on the body.
This process of twigging, as some suggest, is nothing more than very deep friction. In fact, we do see a great amount of hyperemia in the skin due to both the twigging and the heat of the sauna. This process was repeated several times during bathing (followed by rest), and concluded with the bather going for a dip in the snow or in a stream of running water. The severe amount of friction the bather received prevented the body from serious overcooling and helped them to adapt to the cold temperatures of Russian winters and strengthen their immune system. The bania still is in use today, and many Russians have their own outside saunas where they go to detoxify, usually once a week.
Although used as a part of folk medicine for centuries, manual therapy or massage was not studied or used scientifically in Russia until 1860. The catalyst came from the interest of French physicians in hands-on treatment protocols. Russian society, which was heavily influenced by the French at the time, found it easy to adapt new French practices which included physical rehabilitation. The massage done in Russia today is called classical massage, and it was first formulated in the middle of the 18th century. An internal medicine physician, Dr. M. Y. Mudrov, is responsible for bringing this classical form of massage to Russian medicine. He believed that in treatment of any illness, manual therapy and movement are necessary for getting well. At the end of the 19th century, pediatricians Drs. S. G. Zibelin and N.M. Ambodik thought it absolutely necessary to use manual therapy for the proper development of infants, so Russian infant massage was born.
Unlike other infant massages I have observed being done slowly and deliberately, Russian infant massage is very quick and light, involving fast and superficial brushing strokes over the skin using the fingers and no pressure. This is followed by swift and gentle spiral rubbing with the pads of the fingers. Each body part is massaged for one to two minutes, and the full procedure does not exceed 10 minutes. The goal of Russian infant massage is to increase blood circulation to the periphery, which in turn is believed to promote better physical and mental development of the child.
The main contention of Russian massage is that when the rest of the world started studying more "advanced" forms of rehabilitation therapy (electrical stimulation, ultrasound, infrasound and many others), Russian physical medicine did not stop its use of massage therapy in the treatment of patients or its research into the effects of massage. The research history of Russian massage begins with Russian internal medicine specialists Drs. S.P. Bodkin, A.A. Ostroumov and G. A. Zaharyin. These physicians saw manual therapy as one of the best clinical modalities for the treatment of many internal problems.
One of the most prominent Russian physiologists, V.A. Monassein, along with his students, conducted several studies to scientifically show how massage influences functions of the body. In 1886, Gopadze studied manual therapy influence on nitrogen metabolism in the body after the use of massage. I. Stabrovsky (1887) researched performance of the lungs after manual therapy and B.I. Kiyanovsky (1889) analyzed the influence of massage therapy on the metabolism of fats and nitrogen in healthy people.
At the end of the 19th century, centers for studies of massage were founded all over Russia and the Ukraine. These centers were located in a variety of medical schools - medical military academies taught massage and gymnastics (Dr. V.A. Monassein in 1876); obstetric centers taught their delivery nurses gynecological massage (Dr. D.O. Ott in St. Petersburg in 1888); and medical schools taught massage after surgical intervention (Dr. V.P. Dobrolubov in 1893). More than 20 different centers that taught, treated and researched the use of massage therapy were opened in Moscow and St. Petersburg alone from the 1860s - 1920s. Based on the research during this time, classical massage techniques were created, their performance was explained from the physiological perspective, and indications and contraindications in the use of massage were discussed.
Manual therapy was used extensively during World War II as a part of complex rehabilitation treatment of the wounded. After the war, such prominent Russian physicians as A.F. Verbov, V.N. Moshkov and L.A. Kunichev developed special methodology for manual therapy use in all dysfunctions.
In the 1960s, both major universities in Russia and specially formed Institutes of Resortology and Physiotherapy conducted in-depth research of manual therapy and its uses. Today there are hundreds of massage schools open all over Russia, but the fact still remains: Massage therapy is alive and well in the medical schools, hospitals, clinics, and sanatoriums (inpatient medical spas). Massage therapy continues to be heavily supported by the medical community and plays an important part in almost every physiotherapy treatment protocol for musculoskeletal, neurological, internal, cardiovascular and many other dysfunctions. Russia continues to be at the forefront of massage therapy research. Russian athletes still acknowledge the instrumental role massage plays in their performance and recovery, and most of them will tell you massage has prolonged their athletic ability. As massage assumes a more prominent place in the U.S., my hope is that it will gain the same prestige here that it has held in the Russian medical community. It definitely deserves it.
Zhenya Wine has practiced and taught Russian medical and sports massage and physiotherapy for 31 years, and runs the Kurashova Institute in Rock Island, Ill.
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