resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
Don't Ignore the Lower Half of the Pelvis (Part 1)
When your patient complains of lower back or pelvic pain, but your usual treatments are not getting the job done, what do you examine and treat? You may be missing important structures in the lower half of the pelvis.
Work Stress and Musculoskeletal Health: Do Your Patients Get the Connection?
Most people underestimate the impact their job has on their health, especially if that job isn't particularly physically demanding. Big mistake.
A Study of Relationships
Sa-Ahm's five element acupuncture method is known to be one of the most effective acupuncture techniques in Korea because it gives an instant response at the time of treatment and has a high success rate in resolving chronic problems.
Chiropractic in the Eyes of the Public: 2nd Gallup-Palmer Poll
The second Gallup / Palmer College poll has been completed, yielding significant additional data regarding Americans' experiences with and perceptions of chiropractic care.
Are Probiotics Doing More Harm Than Good?
Considerable controversy exists concerning the efficacy of probiotic supplements. Very few human studies show any real positive impact on the microbiome or health. The "promise" of probiotics is based on the few animal studies that suggest a positive effect.
Guidelines for the Use of Modifier -52
Modifier -52 identifies that a service or procedure has been partially reduced or eliminated at the physician's discretion. This is to indicate the basic service described by the procedure code has been performed, but not all aspects of the service have been performed.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) lists more than 80 common autoimmune diseases including asthma, Crohn's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus.
Lessons from Functional Neurology
Chiropractic neurology, also known as clinical neuroscience or functional neurology, is moving the chiropractic profession forward by leaps and bounds.
Illuminating the Hidden, Freeing the Source
Amongst the Primary Channels, from a classical point of view, the small intestine is perhaps the most important channel to understand. It is one of the least used acupuncture channels in modern acupuncture, yet it within it can be found a wealth of theories from the Ling Shu.
What's New in the NCCIH Strategic Plan
The NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) released its draft strategic plan 2016-2021 for public comment in early spring of 2016.
Analyzing Acupuncture Case Studies
Confirm the answer quickly by the elimination method. Take this case study as an example. After two treatments for back pain, a patient presents for a third session complaining of rapid breathing and wheezing that is made worse during cold weather.
Let's Talk About Biceps Injuries at the Elbow
While most muscles cross over only one joint, the biceps crosses two joints: the elbow and the shoulder. Injuries to the lower biceps cause considerable elbow pain. Here's how to assess and treat an injury to this area conservatively.
Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Taiwan Hospitals
This spring, a team of Western medical doctors and TCM practitioners from Cleveland Clinic traveled to Taiwan to visit Kaiser Pharmaceutical Co. (KP), and China Medical University (CMU), Taiwan's leading integrative medicine hospital.
MPA Media Wins More Publishing Awards
The American Society of Business Publication Editors (ASBPE) has honored Dynamic Chiropractic with a national award and two regional awards for editorial excellence, and sister publication DC Practice Insights with two regional awards for graphic design excellence.
Adventures with the Pericardium
My previous column on the San Jiao deserves equal time for SJ's loving partner, the pericardium. I nicknamed SJ the travel meridian – but pericardium can also play a crucial role in air travel.
Know Your Research: Tips for Evaluating Literature Reviews
Clinical and experimental studies are not the only types of published research we might encounter as we look for evidence to inform our practices. One of the most useful types is the literature review, which summarizes a group of studies.
The Professional and Practice Benefits of Political Activism
Welcome to election season, a vital part of our American culture. Every two years, without fail, we are bombarded with TV, print materials and phone messages seeking our vote.
Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes (Part 1)
More than 45 million children ages 6-18 participate in some form of organized athletics, and 75 percent of American families with school-aged children have at least one child participating in organized sports.
International Congress on Integrative Medicine
"Bridging Research, Clinical Care, Education and Policy" was the theme for the International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health 2016 (ICIMH).
Less Time Than Required
Q: When is it appropriate to use a modifier -52? Can I use it for a timed service when I do less than the time required by the code?
Time to Fight for Your Medicare Right
I have heard a lot of noise and a lot of debate about what is going on with Medicare. As an ACA delegate, I often get asked: 'What is the ACA even doing?'
What are the Meridians?
The meridian and collateral system (jing luo, hereinafter referred to as "Meridians") is comprised of the main meridian channels (jing mai) and the collateral vessels (luo mai). Jing takes from meaning of the Chinese word pathway (also jing) and are the main branches of the system.
April, 2008, Vol. 08, Issue 04
A History of Russian Medical Massage
By Zhenya K. Wine
Russian massage virtually was unknown in the U.S. until the 1980s. Upon my immigration to the U.S. in 1980 and during my occupational therapy internship at Riverside Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, I found out firsthand how little "hands-on" therapy was used by physical medicine in this country. It was a great surprise to me since massage has been a part of almost every treatment Russian patients receive during their inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation..
It took me a few years to realize, however, that Russian massage has been in the forefront of physical rehabilitation due to the extensive research that has been done in Russia and the Soviet countries for more than 130 years. To this day, Russian massage is still a virtual unknown in this country.
The main distinction of Russian massage is its 100 percent use by the Russian medical community since its inception in the late 1700s. Until the 1990s (perestroika), Russian massage was taught in medical and athletic establishments only. The only two ways someone could receive massage in Russia were to have a physician's prescription or to be a member of an athletic team. Massage for pampering and relaxation was only available as a part of a facial cleaning or for the super rich. Although practices and education have changed since that time, massage still is one of the most requested forms of physical rehabilitation in Russia to this day.
Russian massage has a long history, having been used by medicine women along with herbal preparations for centuries. The first recorded form of manual therapy done by the ancient Slovaks (later called Russians) at a bania (sauna) was called "twigging." It was done with branches of birch (Slovaks believed the birch had the best medicinal effects and properties). The leafed birch twigs were gathered in the late spring when the properties of the birch were supposed to be superior. They were then dried and used throughout the year. Russians, after bathing, would go to a very hot steam room (70 percent humidity - not quite as humid as the Turkish sauna), where a specially trained man or woman would hit the body with softened leaf-covered birch twigs and would follow by rubbing the body with the branches. After this part of the therapy was completed, the masseur would pour water - hot first, followed by cold - on the body.
This process of twigging, as some suggest, is nothing more than very deep friction. In fact, we do see a great amount of hyperemia in the skin due to both the twigging and the heat of the sauna. This process was repeated several times during bathing (followed by rest), and concluded with the bather going for a dip in the snow or in a stream of running water. The severe amount of friction the bather received prevented the body from serious overcooling and helped them to adapt to the cold temperatures of Russian winters and strengthen their immune system. The bania still is in use today, and many Russians have their own outside saunas where they go to detoxify, usually once a week.
Although used as a part of folk medicine for centuries, manual therapy or massage was not studied or used scientifically in Russia until 1860. The catalyst came from the interest of French physicians in hands-on treatment protocols. Russian society, which was heavily influenced by the French at the time, found it easy to adapt new French practices which included physical rehabilitation. The massage done in Russia today is called classical massage, and it was first formulated in the middle of the 18th century. An internal medicine physician, Dr. M. Y. Mudrov, is responsible for bringing this classical form of massage to Russian medicine. He believed that in treatment of any illness, manual therapy and movement are necessary for getting well. At the end of the 19th century, pediatricians Drs. S. G. Zibelin and N.M. Ambodik thought it absolutely necessary to use manual therapy for the proper development of infants, so Russian infant massage was born.
Unlike other infant massages I have observed being done slowly and deliberately, Russian infant massage is very quick and light, involving fast and superficial brushing strokes over the skin using the fingers and no pressure. This is followed by swift and gentle spiral rubbing with the pads of the fingers. Each body part is massaged for one to two minutes, and the full procedure does not exceed 10 minutes. The goal of Russian infant massage is to increase blood circulation to the periphery, which in turn is believed to promote better physical and mental development of the child.
The main contention of Russian massage is that when the rest of the world started studying more "advanced" forms of rehabilitation therapy (electrical stimulation, ultrasound, infrasound and many others), Russian physical medicine did not stop its use of massage therapy in the treatment of patients or its research into the effects of massage. The research history of Russian massage begins with Russian internal medicine specialists Drs. S.P. Bodkin, A.A. Ostroumov and G. A. Zaharyin. These physicians saw manual therapy as one of the best clinical modalities for the treatment of many internal problems.
One of the most prominent Russian physiologists, V.A. Monassein, along with his students, conducted several studies to scientifically show how massage influences functions of the body. In 1886, Gopadze studied manual therapy influence on nitrogen metabolism in the body after the use of massage. I. Stabrovsky (1887) researched performance of the lungs after manual therapy and B.I. Kiyanovsky (1889) analyzed the influence of massage therapy on the metabolism of fats and nitrogen in healthy people.
At the end of the 19th century, centers for studies of massage were founded all over Russia and the Ukraine. These centers were located in a variety of medical schools - medical military academies taught massage and gymnastics (Dr. V.A. Monassein in 1876); obstetric centers taught their delivery nurses gynecological massage (Dr. D.O. Ott in St. Petersburg in 1888); and medical schools taught massage after surgical intervention (Dr. V.P. Dobrolubov in 1893). More than 20 different centers that taught, treated and researched the use of massage therapy were opened in Moscow and St. Petersburg alone from the 1860s - 1920s. Based on the research during this time, classical massage techniques were created, their performance was explained from the physiological perspective, and indications and contraindications in the use of massage were discussed.
Manual therapy was used extensively during World War II as a part of complex rehabilitation treatment of the wounded. After the war, such prominent Russian physicians as A.F. Verbov, V.N. Moshkov and L.A. Kunichev developed special methodology for manual therapy use in all dysfunctions.
In the 1960s, both major universities in Russia and specially formed Institutes of Resortology and Physiotherapy conducted in-depth research of manual therapy and its uses. Today there are hundreds of massage schools open all over Russia, but the fact still remains: Massage therapy is alive and well in the medical schools, hospitals, clinics, and sanatoriums (inpatient medical spas). Massage therapy continues to be heavily supported by the medical community and plays an important part in almost every physiotherapy treatment protocol for musculoskeletal, neurological, internal, cardiovascular and many other dysfunctions. Russia continues to be at the forefront of massage therapy research. Russian athletes still acknowledge the instrumental role massage plays in their performance and recovery, and most of them will tell you massage has prolonged their athletic ability. As massage assumes a more prominent place in the U.S., my hope is that it will gain the same prestige here that it has held in the Russian medical community. It definitely deserves it.
Zhenya Wine has practiced and taught Russian medical and sports massage and physiotherapy for 31 years, and runs the Kurashova Institute in Rock Island, Ill.
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