resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
Yo San University Helps Make LA Communities Healthier
An element of healthcare training often overlooked is the residual benefit to communities served by Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AOM) schools nationwide.
Billing and Coding for Moxibustion
Q: I am trying to locate a code for cupping and moxibustion, and have had various fellow acupuncturists indicate that they bill using the existing codes for heat, 97010 hot packs or 97026 infra-red for moxa and 97016 vasopneumatic device for cupping.
Elevated Shoulder? Check the QL
As you know, posture reveals a great deal about the body. Posture is a unique mental and physical landscape revealing compensations and adaptations to life. It's a classic mind-and-body story.
Interprofessionalism: What it Means and Why You Should Care
Interprofessionalism in education and in practice is a growing trend across health care in the United States. The idea that team-based care and collaborative practice can improve health care has been around more than 50 years.
Sell Out: Using Research for the Wrong Reasons
The above chorus is from the ska band Reel Big Fish's 1997 hit song, "Sell Out," from their album, "Turn the Radio Off." In the song, the singer sarcastically relates the plight of a musician who is tired of "flipping burgers" and is willing to get "lots of money" by playing "what they want you to hear" in order to get a recording contract.
East Meets West
Gung Hay Fat Choi. Welcome to the year of the Monkey. There will be fireworks for both January and February this year. What great celebrations.
Changing the Cultural View of Medicine
Many hospitals in the U.S. are incorporating integrative clinics that include Traditional Chinese Medicine. Cleveland Clinic has led the charge for adding a traditional Chinese herbal medicine clinic to their existing acupuncture program.
Spine Surgery: A Tale of Greed and Corruption
All too often, where there's substantial money to be made, greed and corruption inevitably follow.
News in Brief
A Winner in and Out of the Office; Ready for the "Have-A-Heart" Campaign? New Integrative Medicine Journal.
We Get Letters & Email
In the Dec. 1, 2015 issue, we have Donald Petersen reporting on "the adapting chiropractic practice," which includes multidisciplinary practice as an option; a ChiroPoll indicating 59 percent of DCs are seeing at least 21 patients per day and 27 percent are seeing more than 40.
The Amazing Clinical Versatility of Milk Thistle (Part 1)
Most of us know that the standardized extract from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is probably the best-proven herb for protecting the liver from chemical and inflammatory damage.
Top 10 Fitness Trends for 2016
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published its annual fitness trend forecast in the November / December 2015 issue of ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal.
Percussion Therapy: An Experiment
My study of qi began more than 20 years ago — long before my study of TCM, points or pathways. It all started with an awareness in my hands and physical manifestations in the way of blockages while working on clients.
Preventing ACL Injuries in Female Athletes
For female athletes, the key to optimal athletic health lies in preventing ACL injuries. In medical terms, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the primary restraint to the anterior displacement of the tibia on the femur at all angles of the knee flexor.
Integrative Medicine Can Shape the Profession
As the AOM profession struggles to define the role of "integrative" medicine within their practices their schools and organizations, students, faculty, alumni and administrators at schools wrestle with discussions of how much, where, how, and what to "integrate."
Do You Teach Patients How to Breathe Properly?
Spinal manipulation often produces quick results in terms of pain alleviation and improved range of motion. Unfortunately, once the patient is no longer in pain, they may discontinue therapy, only to be plagued by the same complaint at a future date.
The MRI: When and Why to Order One
As I lecture around the country to both chiropractors and medical specialists, it's clear one of the main disconnects between the two professions is that of an accurate diagnosis.
From Antiquity to Modernity: Huang Qin Tang at Yale Medical School, Part 1
Traditional Chinese medicine is a coherent medical system with several unique characteristics: it originated almost 3,000 years ago; in its area of origin, it has been practiced without interruption since its inception.
Window of the Sky Points
The acupuncture points known as Window of the Sky are a modern creation. There is no reference in Chinese medical texts for an acupuncture point category called Window of the Sky.
The Future of Functional Neurology
Functional is the hot buzzword in health care these days; witness the rising popularity of functional medicine, functional testing and yes, functional neurology.
How to Humanize Your Content to Create Stronger Relationships
Content marketing is about building relationships, whether that is through updates on social media, offers on your website, blog posts, email campaigns, or even printed material. Now days a business needs to make a human connection.
Osteoporosis Isn't Always the Case
What is your diagnosis? The patient is a 58-year-old female with back pain. I am sure all of you see the compression fracture at L2; however, there are some findings that suggest this is not a compression fracture due to osteoporosis.
Forgotten Options for Musculoskeletal Health
Challenges with musculoskeletal health are of tremendous concern for many people today.
Asking the Insurance Rep the Right Questions
One of the first or last questions a potential patient often asks is: "Do you take insurance?" An ill-informed or optimistic, "yes" can result in delayed or non-payment. Instead, just say: "Let me check if you are eligible first."
Ethics: The Glue That Holds Us Together
Kudos to the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) for creating a code of ethics for the nationwide profession and for deciding to make courses in ethics a requirement for certification renewal.
February, 2007, Vol. 07, Issue 02
Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome
By Erik Dalton, PhD
In the early 20th century, sacroiliac joint syndrome was the most common medical diagnosis for low back pain, which resulted in that period being labeled the "Era of the SI Joint." Any pain emanating from the low back, buttock or adjacent leg usually was branded and treated as SI joint syndrome.However, this medical mindset came to a screeching halt in 1934, when Jason Mixter, MD, published an article on the intervertebral disc lesion in The New England Journal of Medicine.1 His landmark report changed the popular understanding of sciatica and helped establish surgery's prominent role in the management of sciatica at the time. Over the next few decades, discectomy surgery increased in popularity, causing many to define that period as the "Dynasty of the Disc."
SI joint syndrome continued its fall from fashion due to the lack of reliable clinical studies confirming its very existence. Although many manual therapists quietly continued treating this disorder with some success, no one was able to put forward a convincing biomechanical theory explaining how the sacrum becomes stuck "crooked" between the two innominate bones. Physicians were hesitant and reluctant to envision a joint with so little movement causing so much pain, while manual therapists countered that its limited motion is vital to proper lumbar spine functioning. So, the SI joint controversy raged until the late 1970s, when renowned manipulative osteopath Fred Mitchell Sr. introduced an innovative and practical biomechanical model that clearly demonstrated normal and aberrant SI joint movement patterns occurring in most individuals.2 Using muscles as levers to correct lumbopelvic restrictions, Mitchell's muscle energy technique spurred a renewed interest in the SI joint as a source of back pain. Figure 1 and Figure 2 demonstrate a modified muscle-energy assessment and correction routine for a painful left unilateral extended sacrum.
Since most SI joints only move about 2 to 4 millimeters during weight bearing and forward bending, they are described as a gliding-type joint. This motion is quite different from the hinge-type articulation at the knee or the ball-and-socket motion of the hip. Considered a viscoelastic joint, the SI's major movement comes from ligamentous stretching. Therefore, its primary function within the pelvic girdle is to provide shock absorption for the spine by stretching in various directions. When sacroiliac joints work in perfect harmony with the third bony articulation of the pelvis (symphysis pubis), a marvelous self-locking mechanism develops that helps us walk. Aided by power generated by the hip abductors (gluteus medius/ minimus, TFL and piriformis), the pelvic joints brace the weight-bearing side during gait. This locking system, termed force closure, allows smooth transference of body mass from one leg to the other (Fig. 3). Although no muscles directly bind down the three pelvic joints, when working synchronously with the SI ligaments they provide the pelvis − "the great adapter" − with a remarkable antigravity springing system that can absorb both ascending and descending forces (Fig. 4).
During the aging process, there is an increase in the grooves on the opposing surfaces of the sacrum and ilium, which reduces available motion of the SI joint. This is a perfect example of the body's innate wisdom attempting to sacrifice complexity of motion for stability. An interesting note is that the age with highest incidence of disabling back pain (25-45 years) is the same age at which the greatest amount of motion is available in the sacroiliac joints. It's not uncommon for an SI joint to become stiff and permanently lock as we age. This may be a good reason for massage therapists to begin incorporating specialized soft-tissue mobilization techniques on a regular basis, to maintain joint-play and prevent agonizing arthrosis and arthritis from developing. Due to the small amount of sacroiliac movement and the joint's inherent biomechanical complexity, proper assessment can be tricky.
Frequently, muscle imbalance patterns develop as tissues become strained from overuse, underuse or abuse. In the early stages of a typical SI pain episode, protective muscle spasm arises as the sacrum gets stuck side-bent and rotated between the ilia, usually from a forward-bending and twisting incident (Fig. 5). Sustained isometric contraction produces muscle toxicity and weakness causing increased SI ligament loading and overstretching. As the articulating joint surfaces become jarred loose, ligament microtearing creates an inflammatory response. Sensitive chemoreceptors bombard the spinal cord and brain with noxious stimuli, causing the brain to layer the area with protective muscle guarding. This is the beginning of a therapeutically challenging pain/spasm/pain cycle that often is hard to break. It's possible, however, to eliminate pain emanating from hypermobile joints by restoring proper pelvic alignment, frictioning the loose ligaments and addressing core strengthening exercises.
The Sacroiliac, Iliosacral and Hip Joint Connection
Although the three bones of the pelvis frequently are at the seat of a "primary" lesion, I have found that a missing key in successful correction of recurrent SI pain is motion-restricted hip joints, i.e., poor alignment of the femur in the acetabulum. For the pelvis to effectively absorb the forces imposed upon it, the hips must be aligned and functioning properly. Normally, it's not the gross motions creating dysfunction within the hip's truncated joint capsule, but restrictions of minor movements such as iliofemoral ligament adhesions (Fig. 6). Therefore, a rational treatment approach would begin with mobilization of the adhesive hip capsule, followed by step-by-step restoration of iliosacral alignment (movement of ilia on sacrum) and sacroiliac alignment (movement of sacrum between the two ilia).
Vladimir Janda, MD, reminds us that: "Any alteration in joint function caused by capsular restriction or loss of joint play affect muscles that cross the dysfunctional joint either through inhibition (weakening) or facilitation (tightening)."2,3 Following this line of thought, a fibrosed hip capsule (usually right) could reflexively spasm and shorten the neighboring iliopsoas muscle, causing reciprocal weakness in its antagonist gluteus maximus. This commonly seen muscle imbalance pattern produces a right anterior inferior rotated (AIR) ilium that refuses to stay aligned no matter how much "psoas-beating" the therapist performs (Fig. 7). Many in today's flexion-addicted society suffer from anterior hip capsule adhesions and tight psoas muscles that "glue" the femur into a flexed position, preventing adequate hip extension during gait. But we have to walk ... so what happens? As the right leg swings back into extension, the short iliopsoas and fibrosed hip capsule drag the already anteriorly rotated right ilium more forward and down, causing increased lumbosacral angle, facet joint and disc compression, greater ligament laxity, compensatory lumbar scoliosis and pain (Fig. 8).
Figures 9-11 demonstrate a nice pelvic balancing routine I've found effective for releasing adhesive hip capsules, lengthening iliopsoas and correcting iliosacral alignment. Competing athletes suffering recurring unilateral hamstring pulls always should be evaluated for hip capsule restrictions that might be causing iliopsoas facilitation and glute max inhibition. The most common cause of persistent hamstring injuries results from an altered firing order pattern, whereby a weak gluteus maximus fires late during hip extension, forcing the hamstrings to do all the work. Since motion-restricted joints can reflexively weaken associated muscles, it's a good idea to mobilize all capsular restrictions and lengthen tight postural muscles before attempting to strengthen muscle groups perceived as weak.
Once optimal hip range of motion and iliosacral alignment are restored, sacroiliac problems often spontaneously correct themselves ... but not always. If low back, buttock or leg pain persists, the therapist must be equipped with proper assessment and treatment tools to effectively deal with SI joint syndrome. Of the 10 or so ways the sacrum can become stuck crooked between the two ilia bones, usually only the flexed, extended and torsioned sacroiliac dysfunctions prove to be pain-generators. In the next "Toolbox of Touch" column, I will discuss and demonstrate six useful deep-tissue myoskeletal techniques for assessing and correcting sciatic symptoms caused by backward sacral torsions and lumbar scoliosis.
Click here for previous articles by Erik Dalton, PhD.
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