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Nutrition for Menopause: Front-Line Therapy for All Phases
Of all the changes women experience during their reproductive life, there is no doubt the most dreaded are the three phases of menopause. This is not surprising since all of the symptoms associated with menopause are replete with unpleasantness.
Shoulder Rehab: Start With the Scapula
The scapula is an incredible display of elegance and movement within the biomechanics of human motion. It's evolved for mobility and stability in the scapulo-thoracic region, giving us the ability to do things that are uniquely human, such as throwing with accuracy.
True Practice Mobility for the Chiropractic Profession
When natural disasters occur, chiropractors can literally travel to the other side of the world to offer humanitarian relief in less than a day. The chiropractor's license to legally practice, however, can't make it past the state line.
Anti-Aging With Dr. Ping Zhang
Jennifer Waters, TCM practitioner and writer of the Acupuncture Today column, "Talking With the Masters" sat down with Dr. Ping Zhang to discuss aniti-aging with acupuncture.
Let's Clear Up the Collection Confusion
This is an often-misunderstood practice swirling with misinformation. First, a few basics: Insurance is a contract between the patient and the insurance company. The insurance company is simply making a payment for services or care on behalf of the patient.
A Conversation With Dr. Betty Edmond
This month's column is an exclusive interview with Betty Edmond MD, newly elected CEO/President of the AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine in Austin, Texas.
Low Back Pain in Running Athletes
After 7 million years of adapting to upright postures, the lumbar spine and pelvis have become remarkably adept at managing ground-reactive forces associated with running.
News in Brief
Updated Neck Pain & Whiplash Guideline; Attention, IHS DCs; New VP of Institutional Advancement At Palmer; N.J. DC Interns At U.S. Olympic Training Center; Chiropractic Society Of R.I. On The Front Lines.
Prepare for the End, From the Beginning: Wealth Building and Retirement with the Tao
Yin and yang flow into and out from one another continually. Beginnings become endings and endings become beginnings again. Wholeness and cycles are the nature of Tao.
An Education in Gluten Sensitivity
A relatively new syndrome officially documented as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity (GS) was officially recognized and published in the new list of gluten-related disorders in 2012.
Acupuncture Points: Broadening Our Scope and Diagnostic Work
As every practitioner knows, the correct diagnosis is everything. Most healing disciplines rely on the use of symptomatology for their treatment implementation. Beyond symptomatology, we have clinical tests to provide more objective findings.
The Acupuncture Channel System (Part 1)
The earliest Chinese reference to channels is in the Mawangdui Medical Manuscripts,1 which are dated to the Warring States period of the Zhou Dynasty (475 BC-221 AD). The text presents 11 channels. There are no acupuncture points listed in those channels.
Crow Like the Rooster
As we welcome in the Year of the Rooster, we look at some of its major characteristics: confidence and communication, which suits the image we have of the Rooster...strutting in the farmyard, crowing to the others that it's time to wake up.
Qigong for Substance Abuse
It is commonly believed that substance abuse, in addition to harming one’s physiological state, hurts the spirit. There is also a belief that one’s spirit does not weaken due to substance abuse, but rather, the person finds solace in addiction due to an already weak spirit.
Flirting With Alternative Therapies
There are about as many adjunct therapies being marketed to acupuncturists as there are acupuncturists. While some may remain purist in their application of traditional Chinese medicine, others choose to explore new horizons of treatment.
Another Step Forward for Chiropractic
Chiropractic is now available to 86,000-plus Latter-Day Saints missionaries and you are invited to become a provider. LDS membership in not required; our only concern is that our missionaries get the best quality care available.
An Opportunity & a Responsibility
Nearly 80 Americans die from an opioid-related overdose every day, and spine-related pain is one of the principle drivers of opioid use. This unfortunate situation creates both an opportunity and a responsibility.
A New Year and Vision for the ACA
Inadequate pain management coupled with the epidemic of prescription opioid overuse and abuse has taken a severe toll on the lives of millions of people in the United States. Every day, more than 1,000 people are treated in the ER for misusing prescription opioids.
The Case Report: A Valuable Tool
Case reports are a valuable form of descriptive research. The most basic form of practice-based research, a case report is a detailed account of the history, presenting symptoms, assessment, observations, treatment and follow-up of an individual patient, discussed in the context of prior and potential future research.
Scar Reduction With Acupuncture & Microneedling (Part 2)
Protocols & treatment Timing
Five Branches University Has First Hospital TCM Residency
Established in 1984, Five Branches University (FBU) has campuses in Santa Cruz and San Jose, Calif., which serve the communities of Santa Cruz, the Monterey Bay, and Silicon Valley.
The winter season is upon us and offers unique challenges for the clinician and patient alike. To effectively navigate through the winter season there are two main TCM medicinals, Huang Qi and Gan Jiang, to consider, as well as two important formulas which feature these two TCM treasures.
July, 2004, Vol. 04, Issue 07
Spotlight on Research
By Michael Devitt
Editor's note: This periodic column keeps you abreast of the latest research documenting the benefits of massage and bodywork. Published research is summarized, with references to the full study text provided; abstracts of research are reproduced with minimal edits.
If you would like your research abstract or summary published in Spotlight on Research, please contact us at .
New Study Reviews Effectiveness of Massage Therapy: Researchers Draw Interesting Parallels Between Massage and Psychotherapy
Massage therapy is one of the fastest growing forms of alternative medicine in the country.A 1998 study found that visits to massage therapists increased 36 percent between 1990 and 1997.1 More recently, a study published by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine this May2 found that massage was the ninth most popular form of alternative medicine in the country, with an estimated 5 percent of the adult American population using massage therapy at least once in the past 12 months.
While the use of massage continues to rise, so has interest in massage research. While several meta-analyses of massage studies have been conducted in the past, each of them has been limited in scope, preferring to look at specific patient groups or types of massage. A new meta-analysis, published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal earlier this year,3 has taken a fresh look at the effectiveness of massage therapy in the adult population, and has concluded that it offers a wide range of physical and psychological benefits similar to those seen using other forms of care.
In the analysis, researchers began with 144 studies that fit their definition of massage, which was defined as "the manual manipulation of soft tissue intended to promote health and well-being." To qualify for inclusion, each study had to have been conducted on adults; studies on infants, or those employing therapeutic touch, ice massage, self-massage or massage with mechanical devices were eliminated. In addition, each study had to (a) compare a massage therapy group with at least one non-massage therapy control group; (b) randomly assign subjects to groups; and (c) report data sufficient enough for a between-groups effect to be generated on at least one variable being studied.
Thirty-seven studies met the above criteria and were used in the meta-analysis. The studies involved a total of 1,802 participants, including 795 who received massage therapy. The average number of participants per study was 48.7; the average age of a participant was 40.6. In some studies, massage was delivered only once; in others, it was performed multiple times. On average, participants received 21.7 minutes of massage therapy per treatment application. Sixty-five percent of the studies reported using a trained massage therapist (or therapists) to provide care; 22 percent reported using a "minimally trained" person or persons; and 14 percent did not indicate the level of training by the person (or persons) administering massage.
Nine specific effects were measured in the studies. In studies in which patients received a single application of massage therapy, anxiety state, blood-pressure levels, heart rate, negative mood, and immediate assessment of pain and cortisol levels were examined. In multiple-application studies, trait anxiety, depression and delayed assessment of pain were investigated. In the single-application studies, massage therapy (MT) produced "statistically significant" positive results for three effects compared to patients receiving a placebo or a different therapy.
According to the researchers: "... the average participant receiving MT experienced a reduction of state anxiety that was greater than 64 percent of participants receiving a comparison treatment. MT was also more effective than comparison treatments in reducing blood pressure and heart rate. The average MT participant experienced a reduction in blood pressure that was greater than 60 percent of comparison group participants, whereas for heart rate, the reduction resulting from MT was greater than 66 percent of comparison group participants."
In a surprise finding, massage did not reduce cortisol levels significantly, a result that differed from conclusions obtained in previous studies. In addition, massage therapy did not exhibit any effect on the immediate assessment of pain or a patient's negative mood. Despite these contrasting results, the scientists noted that "the significant finding for the cardiovascular variables suggests that future research should examine whether MT might have an enduring effect on blood pressure such that it could be used in treating hypertension."
In the multiple-application studies, "some of MT's largest and most interesting effects" were observed. While massage didn't appear to affect one's immediate assessment of pain, "a significant effect" was found for delayed assessment of pain. Specifically, patients who received a course of massage therapy and were assessed several days or weeks after the last treatment session "exhibited levels of pain that were lower, on average, than 62 percent of comparison group participants," a finding that lends credence to the theory that massage may promote the reduction of pain by allowing restorative sleep to take place more easily.
The most significant effects of massage therapy were seen when measuring anxiety and depression levels. According to the researchers, "The average MT participant experienced a reduction of trait anxiety that was greater than 77 percent of comparison group participants, and a reduction of depression that was greater than 73 percent of comparison group participants." So great were these reductions that the scientists considered massage therapy almost as effective as traditional psychotherapy in the treatment of anxiety and depression.
Massage: The Psychotherapy of the 21st Century?
The results of the meta-analysis dealt a blow to some commonly held beliefs about the effectiveness of massage therapy. For instance, the failure of massage to provide a significant effect on the immediate assessment of pain "contradicts the theory that MT provides stimuli that interfere with pain consistent with gate control theory." In addition, while the reductions in blood pressure and heart rate supported existing beliefs that massage promotes a response in the parasympathetic nervous system, the authors noted that "if this theory is true, it would also be expected that a significant reduction in cortisol levels would have occurred, which did not."
One new theory the researchers put forth was that massage therapy "may provide benefit in a way that parallels the common-factors model of psychotherapy." In this model, the specific mode of psychotherapy delivered is secondary to other factors, such as a client's positive expectation for treatment, a therapist who is warm and has a positive regard for the client, and the relationship between the therapies and the client.
"The same model can be extended to MT, given the possibility that benefits arising from it may come about more from factors such as the recipient's attitude toward MT, the therapist's personal characteristics and expectations, and the interpersonal contact and communication that take place during treatment, as opposed to the specific form of MT used or the site to which it is applied," the authors suggested.
Given the proposed similarities between massage therapy and psychotherapy, one might think that the benefits derived from massage are, in layman's terms, "all in your head." As the researchers asserted in their conclusion, this is hardly the case, but it does lead to intriguing possibilities for future massage research.
"The idea that MT has significant parallels with psychotherapy, and that perspectives gained from psychotherapeutic research should be applied to future research, is not meant to suggest that MT delivers effects entirely by psychological means," the scientists explained. "Clearly MT is at least partially a physical therapy, and some of its benefits almost certainly occur through physiological mechanisms. In fact, one of the most interesting aspects of MT is that it may deliver benefit in multiple ways."
"... However, whether researchers wish to study MT as a physical therapy, as a psychological one, or as both, new research should examine not merely the effects resulting from MT, but also the way in which these effects come about," they advised. "It is only by testing MT theories that a better understanding of this ancient practice will result."
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