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What's New in Phytonutrition: Mangifera Indica, "The King of Fruits"
One hundred percent pure Indian green mango fruit (mangifera indica), harvested at a special degree of ripeness for efficacy and taste, can now be concentrated as a phytonutrient nutraceutical powder.
The Pertinent Negative
We all have to perform evaluations on patients. Most of us don't like doing it – exams take time, and worse it takes even more time after the evaluation to put together a narrative summary of the findings. Sometimes, this process becomes downright tedious.
Adventures with the San Jiao
Those of us who have been in practice for several decades relish the way meridians and points reveal new diagnostic clues and new insights. I love to encourage my students to see this as an adventure that goes way beyond the textbooks.
Multivitamin Supplement May Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence
There is a great deal of controversy regarding the value of multiple vitamin supplements in cancer prevention.
Increasing the Value of Spine Care: CMS Approves New Low Back Pain Registry
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has approved the Spine IQ Low Back Pain Registry as a qualified clinical data registry for the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) in 2016.
Three Tips to Help You Analyze the Acupuncture Case Studies of the NCCAOM Exam
Confirm the answer quickly by the elimination method. Case study:
After two treatments for back pain, a patient presents for a third
session complaining of rapid breathing and wheezing that is made worse
during cold weather.
Introducing the Acupuncture Today Digital Edition
In response to the changing habits of our readers, Acupuncture Today will introduce a digital edition of the publication (in addition to our print edition) beginning with the August 2016 issue.
Acupuncture Muscle Trigger Point and Oriental Medicine Sports Therapy
It is difficult to ascertain the internal condition of professional basketball player Lebron James during game one of the 2014 NBA finals, in which he developed debilitating muscle cramps that led to his premature removal from the game.
A Long-Overdue Win for Oregon Medicaid Patients - and the Implications for Other States
Beginning July 1, 2016, Oregon Medicaid patients with spinal pain (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, pelvic) who are determined to be low risk based on a biopsychosocial assessment tool (STarT Back – Keele University) can receive four chiropractic visits per episode.
AOM Hospital-Based Practice: A Future Reality?
The natural evolution of health care on the planet is integrative health. We may have some challenges ahead, but based on my research, all indicators are pointing in a positive direction. There seems to be an evolving consciousness among our patient population that is "getting it."
Sit or Stand? Analyzing a Mixed Message
I'm more than a bit confused. At my age, that seems to be a rather common occurrence. However, today more than ever, I'm getting a mixed message.
An MD Who Understands the Opioid Epidemic
Doctors of chiropractic have an important role to play in ending the opioid epidemic and dealing with chronic pain by conservative means (see our top story in this issue) – but who's to blame for opioid dependence and abuse in the first place?
Kansas Achieves Licensing Law
Kansas Governor Sam Brownback signed House Bill 2615 into law on Friday, May 13, 2016. HB2615 includes provisions for the licensure of acupuncturists in the state of Kansas.
Chronic Pain: Become Part of the Solution
I have lectured to more than 7,000 chiropractic physicians over the past five years regarding the chronic pain and opioid epidemic in this country.
Treating Hip & Groin Pain With Abdominal Release of Upper Lumbar Nerve Impingements
Have you encountered patients with groin and hip pain you can't seem to solve? You know it's not a worn-out hip; you suspect the pain is somehow connected to the spine. But somehow, you just can't help them break through.
Beating the Odds: Interview With Para-Powerlifter Adeline Dumapong-Ancheta
Since October 2015, the FICS Foundation, the charitable organization affiliated with the International Federation of Sports Chiropractic (FICS), has been supporting disabled athletes internationally.
Believe it or not, an estimated one-third of your patients have eaten some form of fast food within 24 hours of their appointment with you.
Tai Chi Documentary Premier
First Run Features recently announced the world theatrical premiere of Barry Strugatz's documentary The Professor: Tai Chi's Journey West, which premiered last month at the Laemmle Music Hall in Los Angeles.
How to Stay Sane During the Elections: Understanding Through the Lens of Chinese Medicine
In Chinese Medicine philosophy, everything consists of Yin and Yang. The law of polar opposites – one cannot exist without its opposite.
An Emerging Partnership Model
Maryland University of Integrative Health (MUIH) has educated integrative health and wellness practitioners for the last 40 years, originally as an acupuncture clinic and school. The institution's transformative, relationship-centered programs integrate traditional wisdom with contemporary science
Acupuncture's Impact on the World
For several years, I have been hearing about the town of Rothenburg, Germany. It seemed just a dot on a map until I arrived. It is the home of the TCM Kongress which began in 1968. It has been held annually for 47 years and it has only missed one year.
What You Say Isn't Always What Patients Hear
A few years ago, my aunt Edna (name changed for the purpose of this story) suffered a stroke. After a short hospital stay, she was transferred to a nursing home for rehabilitation. When she arrived at the nursing home, Edna requested a private room.
September, 2003, Vol. 03, Issue 09
What Memories Can Bring
By Keith Eric Grant, PhD, NCTMB
Teaching massage has many rewards.One of these comes from simply enjoying the interplay of individual personalities working together closely, as we do in massage classes. An even deeper satisfaction comes in watching how students' skills develop and their confidence increases over periods as small as several weeks. These developments imply that our teaching is making it into our students' sensory input through the filters of awareness and practice, and into their multiple types of long-term memory. Without memory, we would begin anew each week and never get far. Understanding more about the structure of memory gives us a hint of how learning occurs.
Neurologists have broken the structure of memory into sensory working and long-term memory.6 The first stage, sensory memory, receives the river of input from our senses. It has a large capacity, but only holds information for about one second. The next stage, working memory, has a more limited capacity (seven items, plus or minus two) and holds information for 20 to 30 seconds. Neurologists believe working memory can be divided into a central executive controlling attention, an auditory (phonological) input loop, and a visual input sketchpad.1 The final memory stage is long-term memory, which handles anything we remember longer than working memory can hold. Long-term memory has a near-infinite capacity and seems to be broken up neurologically to process different types of input and content. Long-term memory is thought to divide into declarative memory (conscious memory for events and facts) and implicit memory (unconscious memory for skills; habits; repeated recognition; emotional responses; skeletal musculature; and reflex pathways).9
What neurologists and psychologists have learned about the structure of long-term memory functioning has often come from examining the effects of brain injuries. More recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which measures oxygen flow to different areas of the brain, has been used to display activity in different structures of the brain while doing specific mental tasks. Foster and Jelicic discuss research with amnesia from brain injury in introducing a recent compendium of articles on the structure of memory:5
The term 'memory' can refer to numerous different kinds of remembering and types of knowledge. We will be dealing with information, which is retained in long-term or secondary memory, also referred to by some authors as the permanent memory store. This memory store spans a period from a few minutes to a lifetime. Within this system, evidence from amnesic subjects has proven particularly informative in determining the organization and operating principles of memory. Thus, amnesic individuals have profound memory loss for events which occurred after their brain damage (i.e. they manifest a severe anterograde amnesia), but relatively better preserved memory for events which took place before the occurrence of the brain damage (i.e. their retrograde amnesia is typically less severe). Amnesiacs also typically have preserved functions in other psychological domains; for example intelligence, perception, language and motor functions. Importantly for the theoretical view of long-term memory organization, amnesiacs continue to be able to learn specific types of new information, such as perceptual and motor skills.
It's striking that motor skills can be learned by amnesiacs when they no longer have the ability to memorize facts or remember events for more than a few seconds. This "dissociation" between brain functions indicates to neurologists that conscious (declarative) memory and (procedural) memory for motor skills are physically separated in our brains. Even more intriguing, amnesiacs presented with a word, such as "reason," tend to complete the word fragment "rea" as "reason," rather than other alternatives, such as "reader " or "reality."3 Although conscious memory was lost, some previous experiences remained at an unconscious level.
There is a profound implication in this research that the touch we provide in massage will interact with both conscious and unconscious memories. This provides a pathway for working with life experiences our clients may have consciously forgotten but still recall in their body usage. Such research also adds direct neurological support for pediatrician Mel Levine's observation that neurologically based memory deficits can be very specific, compromising performance; for example, in the massive detail recall used on tests while allowing near normal processing in the less memory-intensive activities of everyday life.7
The physical separation of different facets of memory helps explain the observation that the activity in which facts are presented is an integral part of what is learned. Situations co-produce knowledge through activity. Learning, and the ability to use what is learned, is fundamentally linked to the situation in which it occurred. There is a strong indication that competence can only be measured in situations approximating actual usage. Even the medical profession is becoming aware that objective knowledge and competence are not equivalent, leading to a proposal that "professional competence is the habitual and judicious use of communication, knowledge, technical skills, clinical reasoning, emotions, values, and reflection in daily practice for the benefit of the individual and community being served."4
Working with the memory we each have been given, there remain ways in which we can prompt our memories. Elizabeth Phelps describes ways that emotional content may improve recall, perhaps explaining Elizabeth Bowen's observation in my opening quote:8
For instance, although we know that there are several different types of memory in humans, the predominant one is the ability to recollect information at will. These memories for emotional events seem to have a persistence and vividness that other memories lack. There are several possible ways emotion may alter this explicit, hippocampal-dependent form of memory. Emotion may alter the rate of forgetting for emotional stimuli. Emotion may also provide an organizing theme to aid in later recall. Emotion may influence attention or perceptual encoding, which may effect later recollection. Emotion could also add a component of distinctiveness. All these variables may act independently to influence our ability to recollect emotional information.
Before the printing press was invented, techniques for memorization held greater importance for maintaining and passing on knowledge in an oral tradition.10 People used mnemonic strategies that grouped information using acronyms for easier recollection. We still do this today, using the acronym SITS, to help remember the muscles of the rotator cuff, the Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor and Subscapularis. We still use acrostics, in which the first letter of each word in a sentence is the first letter of a bone or muscle. Thus, the phrase, "Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle" helps us to remember the eight carpal bones: Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrium, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, and Hamate.
A more involved visual format of mnemonic, the Method of Loci or "Memory Palace", dates back to the Greek orator Simonides in the 5th century BC. Supposedly, Simonides was at a banquet, but had left the room just before the roof collapsed. He helped identify the bodies by visualizing a walk through the room, as it was when he left it, noting where different people were in the room. Later, remembering would be visually associated with specific settings in visualized buildings, or so-called "memory palaces." To remember the material, one simply walked mentally through the buildings, often to recalling sequences of items that numbered in the thousands.
Memory brings us much in our senses of self and embodiment. Living within our bodies, sensory input - touch; texture; odors; and light - acts as a direct pathway into accessing memories held below our conscious recollection. In touching our clients' skin, we touch their entire lives - history, present, and future. It's something to remember.
Click here for previous articles by Keith Eric Grant, PhD, NCTMB.
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