resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
Parker University Embraces New Era
Change is in the air at Parker University, which recently announced the selection of both a new president and a new consultant for its seminar program.
Building Bridges with Discipline
As practitioners of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, our role is to educate patients and medical practitioners about the various safety aspects of our medicine. Medical doctors that embrace Chinese medicine want to collaborate and include Chinese herbal medicine in more aspects of clinical care to support their patients.
In This Current Age of Anxiety
Anxiety, also referred to angst or hysteria, goes by many names. One, popularized by the sagacious Zhang Zhong Jing, who many practitioners of Chinese Medicine may be familiar with, is known as Restless Zang/Fu disorder.
Prostate Cancer Risk
A large study published in January 2016 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that men who are vegans had a 35% lower risk of developing prostate cancer compared to non-vegan men. The study followed more than 26,346 men who are part of the Adventists Health Study-2.
Finger (Pad) Pointing: Repetitive-Use Injury Waiting to Happen
"My wrist and hand hurt. I spend all day working on computers and then I come home and spend more time on a computer, usually playing video games."
Billing Timed Services
Q: I do not always use physical medicine services but in my state I do have a scope of practice that allows me to provide many of these services. I am trying to understand what "direct one-on-one patient contact" means in relation to physical medicine services.
Keeping Malpractice Allegations at Bay
It has been suggested that in the litigious environment in which we live, the practice of chiropractic should be defensive and practitioners should constantly be watching their backs. An element of defensive practice is a good idea.
Hip Flexor Contractures & LBP in Above-the-Knee Amputations
Patients with above-the-knee amputations (AK or AKA) are particularly prone to developing hip flexor contractures. Not to be confused with muscle tightness, contractures are a permanent shortening of tissues which cause deformity or distortion.
Holistic Skin Care and Modern Technology
Anti-aging is a concept that we hear in reference to skin rejuvenation and growing older on a daily basis. Aging begins as soon as we are born; therefore "pro-aging" is embracing all stages of life gracefully, with vitality, wisdom, joy, and gratitude as the goal.
How to Reach Your World With the Chiropractic Message
My latest effort to share chiropractic occurred in mid-May while I was sitting at an introductory parent information night for high schoolers. The IT instructor informed us that each student would be receiving a computer for all their studies.
Living Well: Lessons From Our Oldest Old
Aging is a significant public health problem, important to chiropractors in practice and important to DCs who teach students training to become chiropractors.
A Different Way of Looking at It
The way you and your chiropractic colleagues access information has changed over the past decade. According to a recent survey conducted by Dynamic Chiropractic, almost half (48 percent) of DCs read online articles on their personal computer or laptop daily.
Discovery: Finding Insights and Each Other in Different Disciplines
Recently I've been thinking about all sorts of things which are hidden from our daily direct experience. That general category is what links nearly everything that catches my attention and then demands some kind of investigation.
Low Fat vs. Low Carb & the Power of Protein
A science-based website recently posted a nice summary of 23 randomized, controlled trials from peer-reviewed journals pitting low-carb diets against low-fat diets.
Transforming Las Vegas
On a warm spring day in Las Vegas, Sonia Kim, clinic front desk staff, is busy preparing for a full day of intern shifts at Wongu Health Center. She greets patients, makes sure documents are properly signed, and lets the interns know that their patients have arrived.
Constructing Our Reality, Part 2
My last article discussed perception and its relationship to the primary channels. Before we get to the channels most commonly used to treat sensory disturbances, the small intestine and triple heater, we should first talk about the bladder channel.
Understanding Levels of Evidence
The concept of levels of evidence is a cornerstone of research literacy and a great starting point for understanding basic principles of how research works.
Distal Style Treatment of Neurogenic Pain
Treat locally or distally? This question has frequented my thoughts for the treatment of pain throughout my acupuncture career. Each style has strengths and weaknesses, thus the versatile practitioner would do well to forgo dogmatic adherence to any one style in deference to the needs of the individual patient.
News in Brief
NYCC Aggregates Degree Programs in New School; Palmer Chancellor Receives Education Award From ICA; Oklahaven Announces "Have a Heart" Winners.
Sleepless nights, anxiety, mood swings, euphoric energy bursts, obsessive thinking, and a strange feeling in his chest. That is what Matt was experiencing when he first entered my practice. Rather than being concerned, he was loving every minute of it.
With Low-Back Pain, Sometimes Little Things Matter
Typical treatments for low back pain involve large muscles like the quadratus lumborum, iliopsoas, and piriformis. However, there are situations when a very small muscle, the multifidus, can play a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of low back muscular or spinal injury.
Streamline Your Front Desk
Your front office can be your greatest source of efficiency or it can be a constant bottleneck. Increasing the productivity of this area, while not sacrificing the quality of patient interaction, can be a little tricky. However, with some focused effort and intention, your front desk can keep your practice running smoothly.
A Whole-Body Approach to Chronic Tension Headaches
Nearly every day in our practices, we see patients with chronic headaches that have not responded to traditional treatment. They present in our offices with a feeble hope that "maybe" a chiropractor can help.
One of the most common trends to see in clinical medical practice and public health is the cycles of health "buzzwords." These come and go depending upon the current cultural zeitgeist. One year, "parasites" are causing all the issues, and the next year it's "candida."
Billing One-on-One, Direct Patient Contact
This is often misunderstood and leads to trepidation when documenting and subsequently billing timed services.
May, 2003, Vol. 03, Issue 05
Applications of CranioSacral Therapy in Newborns and Infants, Part I
By John Upledger, DO, OMM
CranioSacral Therapy has proven effective in identifying a number of disorders affecting children, including dyslexia, hyperkinetic behavior and motor-control problems.It's also good at alleviating such conditions when they're caused by restrictions in the dura mater membranes of the craniosacral system. I believe the few minutes necessary to conduct a craniosacral system evaluation in the delivery room, or shortly after birth, is a worthwhile investment in any child's future health and well-being.
In 1977, we did a great deal of clinical work at Michigan State University (MSU) to discover how the newly discovered craniosacral system affected patients. For research purposes, I had to develop a standardized evaluation tool. By that time, I had done enough hands-on work that it was fairly simple to come up with the 19-step protocol, which was used by four different examiners to see whether or not the findings were in agreement. The examiners were unaware of each other's findings until each statistician had completed his work. Using this protocol, we examined 25 nursery-school children and found an 85- percent agreement among the four examiners, which took their individual subjective findings out of the realm of chance. Clearly, we were dealing with a craniosacral system that could be evaluated reliably using only the hands of a trained examiner. Based on this study, I considered the evaluation protocol a valid research tool.
I went on to use this protocol on 203 grade-school children. An independent statistician-psychologist correlated my results with the childrens' academic and behavioral performances, and with the medical/obstetrical history of each mother and child. Statistical data analysis revealed that the process was capable of identifying children suffering from dyslexia, hyperkinetic behavior, seizures and motor-control problems. It also could identify babies delivered by Caesarean section or forceps, and those who had suffered oxygen deprivation at the time of delivery.
Based on those results, we opened a clinic at MSU for brain-dysfunctional children. We also received funding to research relationships between autism and craniosacral system dysfunction. The clinic opened in late 1977, and the autistic research was carried out from September 1978 through June 1981. All of this work led to the following impressions and conclusions regarding the effects of craniosacral system dysfunctions on central nervous system (CNS) function.
Maternal Illness or Toxicity During Pregnancy
Maternal illness or toxicity during pregnancy usually results in a generalized tightness of the fetal dura mater, which makes the membrane less able to comply with the rhythmic volume changes of cerebrospinal fluid flowing within the craniosacral system. Frequently, this is a consequence of a maternal viral infection during the last six months of pregnancy. (Maternal bacterial infection is a less likely cause.) We've also seen cases in which tight membranes seemed related to the mother's respiratory difficulties, such as asthma, or to toxin problems, whether from a single experience or ongoing exposure. The toxins could be taken in as food, drink, medicines or street drugs, or inhaled as air pollutants or airborne allergies.
Usually, such a generalized tight-membrane syndrome manifests as gross dysfunction of the child's central nervous system: Sensory and motor deficits, while extremely variable, are obvious. Most often, CranioSacral Therapy greatly affects or completely corrects these problems. The treatment is particularly effective when applied during the first few weeks of an infant's life. If allowed to persist, the noncompliant-membrane syndrome may be severe enough to become a strong contributing factor to the development of autism. Other problems, such as maternal injury, emotional upset or fetal malposition in the pelvis over a prolonged period, are more likely to produce specific clinical symptoms related to craniosacral system dysfunctions that can be discovered quite easily. Proper application of CranioSacral Therapy - the earlier the better - usually is quite effective.
Craniosacral System Dysfunctions Related to the Delivery Process
Delivery of the newborn involves passage of the child through a convoluted birth canal. I believe vaginal delivery represents a child's first CranioSacral treatment, spinal mobilization, myoneural system treatment and sensory-stimulation session. In my opinion, all of these serve to prepare the infant for the rapid transition from life inside the womb to the outside world. Nature seldom makes design errors, and I certainly don't believe the birth canal is one of them.
The bones of the vault of the fetal/newborn skull are hard places in the membrane. There is ample room between their edges for overriding and changing of the head's shape so it can pass through the birth canal. This passage represents a "manipulation" of the skull bones by the birth-canal walls; it ensures their proper mobility, so that after delivery, the bones are able to comply with the motion of the craniosacral system.
Cases of skull-bone overriding usually self-correct as the child's head expands and reshapes after exiting the birth canal. Should this not occur within minutes, a CranioSacral therapist can correct these situations easily. Left uncorrected, override problems can contribute to seizure tendencies. We often find a persistent override between the parietal and frontal bones in spastic conditions such as cerebral palsy. When corrected, these conditions usually improve or disappear entirely.
The squeezing of the child's head during delivery also may act as a circular wringer that encourages the permeation of cerebrospinal fluid into and throughout the brain tissue, down the spinal canal and throughout the subdural spaces. This squeezing motion helps the venous blood drain from the skull vault, so that as soon as the head is delivered from the birth canal, fresh arterial blood can enter the vault and further activate the circulatory systems of the brain. It also offers the first scalp massage.
Most infants are delivered face-down, with the mother in the supine position and the child's occiput coming out under her pubic bones. Many well-meaning delivery attendants feel a need to speed up the process. Obstetrical lore contends that when the head comes out, we must hasten to complete the delivery, since the birth canal may be squeezing the umbilical cord against the infant's body. This cord compression is thought to potentially occlude blood flow to the infant, which may result in brain damage due to hypoxia. In other words, the attendant's good intention translates into grasping the child's head and pulling; in doing so, the head can be hyperextended, which may create a "jamming" of the skull's occipital bone forward into the V-shaped receiving-joint surfaces, located on the superior surface of the 1st cervical vertebra (atlas).
When there is danger of injury, the soft tissues of the body contract or splint. If splinting occurs with the child's occiput jammed in this forward position, it will stay that way. In that case, the contracture of soft tissues at the juncture of the skull base and the top of the neck may compromise areas of the jugular foramena on the right side, the left side or both. If the jamming is more severe, it may compromise the foramen magnum.
The jugular foramena allow several important structures to pass out of the skull, including the jugular veins that drain most of the venous blood from the head into the neck. The foramena also afford passage to the IXth, Xth and XIth cranial nerves. The glossopharyngeal (IXth) and vagus (Xth) cranial nerves work jointly to help control swallowing, airway function, and the larynx, pharynx and esophagus. The glossopharyngeal nerve also works along with the hypoglossal (XIIth) cranial nerve to control the tongue and oropharynx. Additionally, the vagus nerve helps maintain a normal heart rate and is involved in stomach and bowel function. When dysfunctional, the vagus nerve can contribute to a sense of dizziness.
The hypoglossal (XIIth) nerve exits from the skull through the hypoglossal canals, located beside and beneath the joint surfaces of the occiput as it articulates with the atlas. Consequently, jamming can easily result in tongue control problems, such as tongue thrust. The spinal accessory (XIth) cranial nerve innervates some of the major muscles of the neck; when dysfunctional, it may create spasm of the sternocleidomastoideus and/or the portion of the trapezius muscle in the neck. This may continue after birth due to ongoing compression/irritation of the nerve as it exits the jugular foramen, which may then produce a torticollis.
We call this type of craniosacral system dysfunction "occipital base compression." If both sides of the occipital base are severely compressed, it's common to see colic; food regurgitation; esophageal reflux; respiratory difficulties; rapid heart rate; and compromised bowel function (constipation or diarrhea). There also may be spasm of the neck muscles. If left uncorrected, the situation may result in hyperactive child syndrome and attention deficit disorder. When the occipital base jamming is less severe, or only on the right or left side, any combination of these symptoms may be present.
Fortunately, occipital base compression can usually be corrected by a skilled CranioSacral therapist in a matter of minutes, if the child is treated during the first weeks of life. Treatment is most effective when performed during the first few days of life - or even in the delivery room, after the umbilical cord has been cut and the child has been suctioned and wiped clean. The sooner the child is seen, the less treatment normally is required.
If neck-muscle spasm is allowed to persist, it can cause temporal bone dysfunction in the craniosacral system. This has been shown to be a strong contributing factor in children with dyslexia and other reading problems. Interestingly, correcting these dysfunctions in school-age children often allows them to catch up to normal reading levels in a matter of weeks, unless psychological and/or emotional scars are in the way. If they are, psychoemotional therapeutic modalities must be incorporated into the treatment program.
Click here for previous articles by John Upledger, DO, OMM.
Join the conversation
Comments are encouraged, but you must follow our User Agreementcomments powered by Disqus
Keep it civil and stay on topic. No profanity, vulgar, racist or hateful comments or personal attacks. Anyone who chooses to exercise poor judgement will be blocked. By posting your comment, you agree to allow MPA Media the right to republish your name and comment in additional MPA Media publications without any notification or payment.