resourcesABOUT MT AUTHOR GUIDELINES CLASSIFIEDS EDITORIAL CALENDAR MEDIA GUIDE MASSAGE MART SCHOOLS & EDUCATION FEEDBACK
The Acupuncture Success Express
Time is passing very quickly these days. We are atoms half the way through the year of the horse. You could call it "horse racing season" for this profession. Perhaps it is time for reinvention during this time.
Getting Athletes Back in the Game: Low-Level Laser Therapy for Sports Injuries
Sports injury rehabilitation is all about getting back in the game quickly and with optimal health. A relatively new tool for the treatment of sports injuries is finding global success, and it is doing so in a fast, efficient way.
Deciphering The New CMS 1500 Claim Form
Q: I am confused on using the new 1500 form, particularly Block 14 and Block 15. What is required and how do I properly fill these out? And do I actually have to use this new form or may I continue using the old version?
Offline Marketing Techniques: Opportunities to Help Grow Your Business
In a world becoming increasingly dominated by connected devices, when we think of marketing, we often think of online and social media marketing. Considerable attention is given to Facebook and Twitter, as well as CPC [cost-per-click] advertising.
Resolving Medial Arch Suspicions: The Navicular Drop Test
Healthy feet have three distinct arches: medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal and anterior transverse.
Looking For Answers In Many Places
I am sure we have all heard the old adage: "When the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer, everything starts to look like a nail."
Spotlight on Acupuncture Research at IRCIMH
Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine were well-represented at the International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health (IRCIMH)- 2014 which took place in Miami from May 13–16.
Primary Lateral Sclerosis: A Condition With a Chiropractic Connection
Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a slowly progressive, adult degenerative disease of the upper motor neurons characterized by progressive spasticity or stiffness. It is a clinical diagnosis that has been avoided because it is (largely) a diagnosis of exclusion.
Talking to Skeptical MDs: "Just the Facts, Ma'am"
The first lesson in public speaking is to know your audience. This is particularly applicable when talking to skeptical medical doctors about chiropractic. You have to understand where they are coming from and speak the language they understand.
Super Bowl Chiropractor
With opening night of the 2014 National Football League season only a month away, what better time to talk to Dr. Jim Kurtz, team chiropractor for the defending Super Bowl champion Seattle Seahawks?
The Gluteal-Knee Connection
The underlying causes of knee pain and dysfunction are rarely isolated to the knee. The knee is a relatively stable joint with limited intrinsic ability to adapt to aberrant motion.
Inside Liver Failure, Cirrhosis and Cancer
The Liver belongs to Wood in Five Element Theory and is in charge of Dispersing and Expanding which means all the processing and detoxifying of harmful substances such as medications and chemicals require the efforts of the Liver.
The Kidney Official
The Kidney is known as the Official Who Controls the Waterways. In Western medical terms, a major function of the Kidneys is to filter the blood. Every day, a person's kidneys process about 200 liters of blood to sift out about two liters of waste and excess water.
Post-Concussion Patient Care: Relevance of the Chiropractic Adjustment
There is a widespread understanding within the profession of the general guidelines for care of the concussion patient. These include guidelines for physical and cognitive rest, return to normal activities and so forth.
Medical Qigong for the Heart: Part II
Chinese Medicine is rich in commentary regarding the emotions and how they affect our qi.
Healing With Hope
Ella is a Gulf War veteran and a survivor of military sexual trauma. Like hundreds of veterans, Ella was on 11 different medications for depression, anxiety, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic pain.
Hazards in the Environment Making Your Patients Sick
Working both separately and together, Western and Chinese medicine have many successes in the treatment of the myriad diseases that afflict human beings in modern times.
Looking Back: Abstracts From Chiropractic History
D.D. Palmer's Technique for the Posterior Apical Prominence; An Early Attempt to Achieve Consensus on Subluxation; Chiropractic Subject Headings: Past, Present and Future; Mabel Palmer: A History of Chiropractic That Almost Wasn't.
Best Practices for Website Success
If one asked 10 years ago whether a website was relevant I was the first to suggest no. Yet as the world moves increasingly towards electronic information there is a dire need to have a website for your practice. Your website is actually your electronic calling card.
Healing With Simple, Healthy Food
When it comes to your health, there is no better way to take control and create positive outcomes than by focusing on diet and lifestyle. As chiropractors, you know the power that regular self-care has for your patients.
F4CP: New Campaign to Promote Chiropractic as a Career
The F4CP has announced a "targeted cooperative campaign" that will engage doctors of chiropractic and chiropractic students, as well as chiropractic colleges, chiropractic media, state associations and vendors, to encourage DCs to recommend a chiropractic career to patients, family and friends.
Not Another Typical Drug Company Lawsuit
It's becoming more common to see drug manufacturers negotiate "false claims" settlements for millions and billions of dollars.1-2 Most of these settlements have to do with violations in the marketing of the drugs they produce and sell.
October, 2001, Vol. 01, Issue 10
Reflex Mechanisms of Massage Therapy, Part I
By Ross Turchaninov, MD
Editor's note: Dr. Ross Turchaninov graduated from Odessa Medical School in the Ukraine in 1983. He supervised the rehabilitation program at the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine, and later served as chief scientific researcher at the Kiev Orthopedic Institute.Dr. Turchaninov is the author of more then 25 articles in Ukrainian, European and American medical and massage journals. He is also the author of two textbooks published in the USA: Medical Massage, Volume 1 and Therapeutic Massage: A Scientific Approach. Dr. Turchaninov currently resides in Phoenix, Arizona. In the past several years, massage therapy has developed with great speed in the United States as a form of alternative medicine. According to a statistical survey conducted by Eisenberg, et al. and published by the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1998, the probability of a patient visiting an alternative health practitioner increased from 36.3% in 1991 to 46.3% in 1998. Among these patients, massage therapy was second only to chiropractic care in terms of popularity.
The work of scientific institutions such as the Touch Research Institute in Florida has created a scientific background for the clinical application of massage therapy. More and more insurance companies cover the cost of massage therapy, and more and more doctors refer their patients to massage practitioners. Unfortunately, most insurance companies do not cover methods of preventive therapy; their major concern is the clinical effects of treatment. This is also a major expectation of patients and other health practitioners who recommended massage therapy. Consequently, it seems apparent that the further development of massage therapy may lead in the direction of its medical benefits.
Therapeutic massage alone does not necessarily deliver stable clinical results. This type of massage therapy was originally created for healthy people, to enhance their health and improve their well being. Some of the methods of medical massage therapy are already widely (e.g., lymph drainage massage) or partially (e.g., connective tissue massage) incorporated into the arsenal of American massage therapy; some methods remain to be rediscovered or more fully explored (e.g., segment-reflex massage or periostal massage).
The medical massage practitioner occupies a special place in massage therapy. What distinguishes a massage therapist from a medical massage practitioner? First of all, medical massage demands more education and, perhaps more importantly, a commitment to permanent self-improvement. Second, the massage therapist who studies and practices for example, lymph drainage massage, cannot be considered a medical massage practitioner, but rather a lymph drainage massage practitioner. The uniqueness of medical massage therapy is in its integrative approach. In other words, the medical massage therapist has to know all major methods of medical massage therapy, and be able to blend them together to create the unique treatment protocol of the treatment for each patient. Only in such a case can stable clinical results be achieved. We do not expect surgeons to conduct an operation by knife only; they utilize a wide set of different tools. The methods of medical massage therapy are tools massage therapists use for the health benefits of their patients. With such an integrative approach, the medical massage practitioner can treat different somatic or visceral disorders using the local and reflex mechanisms of massage therapy.
The local mechanisms of massage therapy are widely known -- they play an important role in the formation of the clinical effects of massage treatment. However, in this article I will discuss the theoretical foundation of reflex mechanisms of massage therapy. These mechanisms are key elements of the major methods of medical massage therapy: segment-reflex massage; connective tissue massage; periostal massage; and neuromuscular therapy.
The human body has two major anatomo-physiological components: soma and viscera. Soma includes skeletal system and all soft tissue structures: skin, fascia, muscles, etc. Viscera includes the inner organs and systems of our body. The soma provides our locomotion, interaction with environment and also serves as a protective envelope for the viscera. Somatic and visceral structures are perfectly united together by the nervous system. The different somatic structures also interconnect with each other through the nervous system. This interconnection can be seen between different visceral structures or systems of the body. These interconnections are possible because of several principal reflexes:
The medical massage practitioner is able to use soma-somatic, viscero-somatic and viscero-motor reflexes for the treatment of various somatic and visceral disorders. The reflex mechanism of massage therapy allows the practitioner to dramatically increase the results of the treatment of somatic abnormalities, and to participate in the treatment of visceral disorders. Soma-somatic, viscero-somatic and viscero-motor reflexes are responsible for the formation of local abnormalities in the areas of soft tissues, innervated by the same segment of the spinal cord as the original somatic or visceral disorder. These areas in the soft tissues are called reflex zones. The reflex zones do not form as soon as clinical picture of original disorder is established. In cases of somatic abnormalities, the formation of reflex zones may take an average of two-to-three weeks. In cases of visceral disorders, the reflex zones are formed after approximately three months. Thus, the reflex zones in the skin, connective tissue, skeletal muscles and periosteum are formed secondarily, as the body's response to chronic various somatic or visceral abnormalities.
The concept of reflex zones was first proposed by Prof. A. Sherbak, MD, in works published between 1910 and 1936. He developed one of the most effective methods of medical massage therapy: segment-reflex massage. The conception of reflex massage therapy continued to develop in different countries. In Austria, E. Dickle and Prof. W. Kohlrausch proposed connective tissue massage in the 1930s. In Germany, Dr. P. Vogler and Dr. H. Krauss developed the concept of periostal massage in 1950s. In 1955, Drs. O. Glezer and V.A. Dalicho reshaped segment-reflex massage by publishing maps of reflex zones in cases of different somatic and visceral disorders. In Russia, Prof. O.F. Kuznetsov developed asymmetric segment-reflex massage in 1977 for the treatment of patients with pulmonary disorders.
After World War II, reflex zones were intensively studied by American scientists (Beal, 1985). Experimental studies conducted by Prof. I. Korr in 1940s allowed scientists to more deeply understand the intimate mechanisms of reflex zone formation.
What mechanism is responsible for the formation of reflex zones in the skin, connective tissue (e.g. fascia, aponeurosis), skeletal muscles and periosteum (i.e., thin connective tissue membrane which covers bones and supports their metabolism)? Let's discuss this matter with the help of figure1.
Take as example a patient suffering from a chronic gastric ulcer. The patient complains of pain in the epigastric area, heartburn, gas, belching, etc. The symptoms worsen with stress and consumption of spicy or fatty foods. The flow of these pathological impulses (solid arrows in figure 1) travels from the peripheral receptors in the stomach, through the afferent sensory neurons, to the posterior horns of the spinal cord, where all sensory information arriving at the spinal cord is primarily processed. As soon as ascending sensory information reaches the spinal neurons in the corresponding segments of spinal cord, these neurons are stimulated. The posterior horns of the spinal cord act as a computer to analyze sensory input, then transfer it to the brain. Simultaneously, these sensory impulses from the stomach are conducted to the lower motor centers, located in the anterior horns of the spinal cord. As a result of stimulation of lower motor centers, the motor commands are sent to the area with original pathological processes in the stomach, causing changes in gastric function such as increased peristalsis, decreased gastric juice production, etc.
The stimulation of lower motor centers also produces the flow of motor impulses to the areas of the skin, connective tissue, skeletal muscles or periosteum, which are innervated by the same segments of the spinal cord as the stomach. Reflex zones start to form in these soft tissues, as a result of their permanent bombardment by motor impulses. However, these motor impulses were not produced originally by the stimulation of peripheral receptors in soft tissues. They are a radiation of sensory impulses from the stomach to somatic areas innervated by the same segment of the spinal cord as the stomach. The constant flow of unnecessary motor commands to the somatic areas causes the increased tension in these areas, and reflex zone formation.
Pathological changes in the reflex zones appear in different clinical forms. As soon as the reflex zones are formed, they start to emit their own pathological impulses through the afferent sensory neurons to the posterior horns of the spinal cord (dashed arrows in figure 1). These stimuli also activate the spinal neurons, which transfer sensory information up to the brain and stimulate the lower motor centers in the anterior horns of the spinal cord. Stimulation of the lower motor centers elicits the flow of motor stimuli back to the areas of reflex zones and, at the same time, the flow of motor stimuli to the stomach. This unnecessary flow of motor impulses to the stomach accelerates the original process of ulcer formation by increasing vasoconstriction, cellular edema, and abnormalities in the gastric secretion. Thus, a vicious circle is formed which supports further development of the chronic gastric ulcer.
Segmental-reflex massage, connective tissue massage, and periostal massage can interrupt this vicious circle - by eliminating local abnormalities in the areas of reflex zones, and by blocking a reverse flow of pathological impulses from the reflex zones to the spinal cord, brain and stomach. Essentially, this is the primary goal of medical massage therapy: to evaluate, then eliminate reflex zones.
Join the conversation
Comments are encouraged, but you must follow our User Agreementcomments powered by Disqus
Keep it civil and stay on topic. No profanity, vulgar, racist or hateful comments or personal attacks. Anyone who chooses to exercise poor judgement will be blocked. By posting your comment, you agree to allow MPA Media the right to republish your name and comment in additional MPA Media publications without any notification or payment.